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From Chemical to Social Networks

John F. Padgett

in The Emergence of Organizations and Markets

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691148670
eISBN:
9781400845552
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691148670.003.0004
Subject:
Sociology, Economic Sociology

This chapter discusses the next frontier in autocatalytic modeling. Building on the model of production in Chapter 3, communication in two forms is added in the formal models in this chapter: ... More


The Emergence of Organizations and Markets

John F. Padgett and Walter W. Powell

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691148670
eISBN:
9781400845552
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691148670.001.0001
Subject:
Sociology, Economic Sociology

The social sciences have sophisticated models of choice and equilibrium but little understanding of the emergence of novelty. Where do new alternatives, new organizational forms, and new types of ... More


Ecological network analysis: an escape from the machine

Robert E. Ulanowicz

in Aquatic Food Webs: An ecosystem approach

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198564836
eISBN:
9780191713828
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198564836.003.0016
Subject:
Biology, Aquatic Biology

Recent advances in the theory of complexity have engendered a shift away from ‘physicalism’, where all nature is reducible to fundamental physical laws towards ‘naturalism’, where natural phenomena ... More


The Problem of Emergence

John F. Padgett and Walter W. Powell

in The Emergence of Organizations and Markets

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691148670
eISBN:
9781400845552
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691148670.003.0001
Subject:
Sociology, Economic Sociology

This chapter elaborates on a theory of the co-evolution of social networks—a synthesis of social science and biochemistry—and shows its empirical significance for the study of human organizations. ... More


Autocatalysis in Chemistry and the Origin of Life

John F. Padgett

in The Emergence of Organizations and Markets

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691148670
eISBN:
9781400845552
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691148670.003.0002
Subject:
Sociology, Economic Sociology

This chapter provides an extensive review of the biochemistry literature on the origins of life where the concept of autocatalysis figures most prominently. There is a lively debate in the scientific ... More


Academic Laboratories and the Reproduction of Proprietary Science: Modeling Organizational Rules through Autocatalytic Networks

Jeannette A. Colyvas and Spiro Maroulis

in The Emergence of Organizations and Markets

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691148670
eISBN:
9781400845552
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691148670.003.0016
Subject:
Sociology, Economic Sociology

This chapter extends previous work analyzing the origins of academic entrepreneurship at Stanford with an agent-based model that simulates the rise and spread of patenting by research faculty, ... More


Complexity: A Necessary Condition

Gennaro Auletta

in Cognitive Biology: Dealing with Information from Bacteria to Minds

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199608485
eISBN:
9780191729539
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199608485.003.0007
Subject:
Physics, Soft Matter / Biological Physics

In order to explain how the brain and also elementary organisms are able to refer to external things and processes we need to consider complexity. Complexity is a specific combination of order and ... More


Evolvability of Organizations and Institutions

John F. Padgett

in Complexity and Evolution: Toward a New Synthesis for Economics

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9780262035385
eISBN:
9780262337717
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262035385.003.0011
Subject:
Economics and Finance, History of Economic Thought

To blend evolutionary theory with complexity theory,this chapter uses Padgett and Powell’s. The Emergence of Organizations and Markets to review the evolability of organizations and institutions. ... More


Peptide Nucleic Acids as Prebiotic and Abiotic Genetic Material

Peter E. Nielsen

in Protocells: Bridging Nonliving and Living Matter

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262182683
eISBN:
9780262282093
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262182683.003.0015
Subject:
Biology, Microbiology

This chapter presents some of the experimental evidence for replication at the molecular level. It discusses molecular replicators in terms of enzyme-catalyzed replication, minimal molecular ... More


Complexity and Self-Organisation

Manfred Eigen

in From Strange Simplicity to Complex Familiarity: A Treatise on Matter, Information, Life and Thought

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2013
ISBN:
9780198570219
eISBN:
9780191748974
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198570219.003.0005
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics

So far, our discussion has mainly been concerned with inanimate matter. Only in Chapter 3 did we notice what is missing in “information” if “meaning” is excluded. A phenomenological theory of the ... More


Thermodynamics today – and tomorrow

Dennis Sherwood and Paul Dalby

in Modern Thermodynamics for Chemists and Biochemists

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
August 2018
ISBN:
9780198782957
eISBN:
9780191826177
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198782957.003.0026
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This last chapter explores the frontiers of how thermodynamics is currently being applied to biology, moving from the scale of the molecule to the scale of the cell. The key theme is ‘self-assembly’ ... More


Oscillatory Reactions

John Ross, Igor Schreiber, and Marcel O. Vlad

in Determination of Complex Reaction Mechanisms: Analysis of Chemical, Biological, and Genetic Networks

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195178685
eISBN:
9780197562277
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195178685.003.0013
Subject:
Chemistry, Physical Chemistry

Oscillating chemical reactions have the distinct property of a periodic or aperiodic oscillatory course of concentrations of reacting chemical species as well as temperature. This behavior is due ... More


Introduction—A Bit of History

Irving R. Epstein and John A. Pojman

in An Introduction to Nonlinear Chemical Dynamics: Oscillations, Waves, Patterns, and Chaos

Published in print:
1998
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195096705
eISBN:
9780197560815
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195096705.003.0006
Subject:
Chemistry, Physical Chemistry

Oscillations of chemical origin have been present as long as life itself. Every living system contains scores, perhaps hundreds, of chemical oscillators. The systematic study of oscillating ... More


What is Life?

John Maynard Smith and Eors Szathmáry

in The Major Transitions in Evolution

Published in print:
1997
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780198502944
eISBN:
9780191919237
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198502944.003.0006
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Palaeontology: Earth Sciences

Imagine that, when the first spacemen step out of their craft onto the surface of one of the moons of Jupiter, they are confronted by an object the size of a horse, rolling towards them on wheels, ... More


Chemical Evolution

John Maynard Smith and Eors Szathmáry

in The Major Transitions in Evolution

Published in print:
1997
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780198502944
eISBN:
9780191919237
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198502944.003.0007
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Palaeontology: Earth Sciences

Even if we take a ‘replicators first’ view of the origin of life, we still have to explain how a chemical environment arose that was sufficiently diverse for such replicators to be formed. As a ... More


The Origin of Protocells

John Maynard Smith and Eors Szathmary

in The Major Transitions in Evolution

Published in print:
1997
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780198502944
eISBN:
9780191919237
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198502944.003.0011
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Palaeontology: Earth Sciences

Cellularization has the following main aspects that we have to explain: • The need for active (self-generated) compartmentation when metabolism is liberated from the surface. • The origin of ... More


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