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Tunable dye lasers and atomic spectroscopy

Alan Corney

in Atomic and Laser Spectroscopy

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199211456
eISBN:
9780191705915
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199211456.003.0014
Subject:
Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics

This chapter discusses the principles of tunable dye lasers and the construction of some typical systems. Applications of these devices to atomic saturated absorption spectroscopy, the measurement of ... More


Niels Bohr and the Quantum Atom: The Bohr Model of Atomic Structure 1913–1925

Helge Kragh

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199654987
eISBN:
9780191741692
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199654987.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics

The theory of atomic structure proposed by the young Danish physicist Niels Bohr in 1913 marked the true beginning of modern atomic and quantum physics. This is the first book that focuses in detail ... More


Elements of atomic spectroscopy

Vladilen Letokhov and Sveneric Johansson

in Astrophysical Lasers

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780199548279
eISBN:
9780191720512
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199548279.003.0003
Subject:
Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics

This chapter illustrates atomic structures of increasing complexity by using energy level diagrams of atoms or ions, for which fluorescence and natural laser radiation have been proposed. It defines ... More


THE NATURE OF ATOMS

C. N. Hinshelwood

in The Structure of Physical Chemistry

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198570257
eISBN:
9780191717659
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198570257.003.0008
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter discusses the structure of atoms. Topics covered include electrons, electron waves, the nuclear atom, atomic structure, energy levels, interpretation of quantum numbers, spectra and ... More


A Magic Wand

Helge Kragh

in Niels Bohr and the Quantum Atom: The Bohr Model of Atomic Structure 1913–1925

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199654987
eISBN:
9780191741692
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199654987.003.0005
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics

In a major work of 1918 (‘On the quantum theory of line-spectra’) Bohr reconsidered the general principles of quantum and atomic theory. Apart from reinterpreting his original theory, he introduced ... More


Ludwig Boltzmann: The Man Who Trusted Atoms

Carlo Cercignani

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198570646
eISBN:
9780191717949
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198570646.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics

This book looks at the life and personality, the scientific and philosophical work of Ludwig Boltzmann, an Austrian physicist who made significant contributions to the development of the atomic ... More


Atomic and Molecular Structure

P.J.E. Peebles

in Quantum Mechanics

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
May 2021
ISBN:
9780691209821
eISBN:
9780691206738
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691209821.003.0006
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

This chapter assesses some applications drawn from atomic and molecular structure. It deals with the structures of the lighter atoms and the simplest molecule, molecular hydrogen. The main ... More


Models of countable theories

Shawn Hedman

in A First Course in Logic: An Introduction to Model Theory, Proof Theory, Computability, and Complexity

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780198529804
eISBN:
9780191916656
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198529804.003.0010
Subject:
Computer Science, Computer Architecture and Logic Design

We define and study types of a complete first-order theory T. This concept allows us to refine our analysis of Mod(T). If T has few types, then Mod(T) contains a uniquely defined smallest model ... More


Physics of Elasticity and Crystal Defects

Adrian P. Sutton

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
August 2020
ISBN:
9780198860785
eISBN:
9780191893001
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198860785.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials, Crystallography: Physics

Mechanical properties of crystalline materials are almost always dominated by the defects within them. The ability to shape metals into pipes, girders and furniture stems from the generation, motion ... More


Bragg’s Law: Diffraction

Brian Cantor

in The Equations of Materials

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
September 2020
ISBN:
9780198851875
eISBN:
9780191886683
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198851875.003.0002
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

The diffraction of X-rays is used as the main method for determining the atomic and molecular structures of inorganic and biological materials. The basic law of diffraction was discovered by Lawrence ... More


Atomic Structure and Spectra

Kannan M. Krishnan

in Principles of Materials Characterization and Metrology

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
July 2021
ISBN:
9780198830252
eISBN:
9780191868665
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198830252.003.0002
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

We review the structure of atoms to describe allowed intra-atomic electronic transitions following dipole selection rules. Inner shell ionization is followed by characteristic X-ray emission or ... More


Two-dimensional oxides

Falko P. Netzer and Claudine Noguera

in Oxide Thin Films and Nanostructures

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
April 2021
ISBN:
9780198834618
eISBN:
9780191872716
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198834618.003.0005
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

The novel physical and chemical properties and functionalities of two-dimensional (2-D) oxide materials are assessed. The synthesis of one unit-cell thick 2-D oxides poses particular challenges, ... More


Bravais Lattices: Crystals

Brian Cantor

in The Equations of Materials

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
September 2020
ISBN:
9780198851875
eISBN:
9780191886683
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198851875.003.0001
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

Most solid materials are crystalline, with their component atoms and molecules arranged in regular arrays throughout space. The French scientist Auguste Bravais showed that there are only 14 ... More


Oxide nanoparticles

Falko P. Netzer and Claudine Noguera

in Oxide Thin Films and Nanostructures

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
April 2021
ISBN:
9780198834618
eISBN:
9780191872716
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198834618.003.0006
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

Oxide micro- and nanoparticles are ubiquitous in the natural environment. They have long been used as catalysts, but have found novel applications with the advent of nanotechnologies. From a ... More


Early Days of X-ray Crystallography

André Authier

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780199659845
eISBN:
9780191748219
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199659845.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography: Physics

2012 marked the centenary of one of the most significant discoveries of the early twentieth century: the discovery of X-ray diffraction in March 1912 by Laue, Friedrich, and Knipping, and of the ... More


Adding a Dimension

A. R. P. Rau

in The Beauty of Physics: Patterns, Principles, and Perspectives

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
December 2014
ISBN:
9780198709916
eISBN:
9780191780189
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198709916.003.0001
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

Dimensional considerations are a powerful, integral part of physics. Starting with the familiar linear dimension, physics expands the idea in different ways. The essence of even complicated problems ... More


Oxide thin film properties

Falko P. Netzer and Claudine Noguera

in Oxide Thin Films and Nanostructures

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
April 2021
ISBN:
9780198834618
eISBN:
9780191872716
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198834618.003.0004
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

Chapter 4 focuses on the various physico-chemical properties of thin films, and in particular on their thickness dependence. It aims at bridging the gap between the well established knowledge ... More


Spin ½ and the Periodic Table

Frank S. Levin

in Surfing the Quantum World

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
November 2017
ISBN:
9780198808275
eISBN:
9780191846014
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198808275.003.0011
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

Some major quantal developments are described in Chapter 10. The Stern-Gerlach experiment is encountered first, wherein a beam of silver atoms is deflected by a magnetic field, leading to a pair of ... More


Janusian Process in Creative Discovery

Albert Rothenberg

in Flight from Wonder: An Investigation of Scientific Creativity

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
November 2014
ISBN:
9780199988792
eISBN:
9780190214159
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199988792.003.0010
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

Verbatim descriptions are presented of the use of the janusian process in creative discovery by Edwin McMillan on phase stability and the synchrotron, Nicolaas Bloembergen on the solid-state maser, ... More


Background Physics

Patrick Magee and Mark Tooley

in The Physics, Clinical Measurement and Equipment of Anaesthetic Practice for the FRCA

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780199595150
eISBN:
9780191918032
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199595150.003.0007
Subject:
Clinical Medicine and Allied Health, Anesthesiology

This chapter covers the background physics that is not otherwise covered in the relevant chapters associated with the equipment discussed. It is a useful introduction to some loosely related, but ... More


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