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Spiking

Pierluigi Frisco

in Computing with Cells: Advances in Membrane Computing

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199542864
eISBN:
9780191715679
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199542864.003.0007
Subject:
Mathematics, Applied Mathematics, Mathematical Biology

Spiking neural P systems are the subject of this chapter. They were inspired by a very specific kind of cell: neurons, and their method of operation mimics the functioning of these ... More


Receptors for Neurotransmitters and Hormones

Helmut Kettenmann and Christian Steinhäuser

in Neuroglia

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195152227
eISBN:
9780199865024
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195152227.003.0010
Subject:
Neuroscience, Development, Disorders of the Nervous System

This chapter focuses on the receptors expressed by different types of glial cells for neurotransmitters and hormones. Topics discussed include astrocytes (e.g., ionotropic glutamate receptors, ... More


Quantal Release of Transmitter: Not Only from Neurons but from Aastrocytes as Well?

Andrea Volterra and Jacopo Meldolesi

in Neuroglia

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195152227
eISBN:
9780199865024
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195152227.003.0014
Subject:
Neuroscience, Development, Disorders of the Nervous System

This chapter focuses on astrocytes. In the last fifteen years, the status of astrocytes has changed profoundly from a cell scaffold and metabolic-trophic reservoir offering neurons a necessary, yet ... More


The Role of Glia in the Formation and Function of the Blood–Brain Barrier

Hannelore Bauer, Hans-Christian Bauer, Reiner F. Haseloff, and Ingolf E. Blasig

in Neuroglia

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195152227
eISBN:
9780199865024
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195152227.003.0025
Subject:
Neuroscience, Development, Disorders of the Nervous System

This chapter describes the structure and function of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) represented by brain capillary endothelial cells. Special attention is given to the influence of astrocytes and ... More


Extracellular Potassium and pH: Homeostasis and Signaling

Jonathan A. Coles and Joachim W. Deitmer

in Neuroglia

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195152227
eISBN:
9780199865024
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195152227.003.0026
Subject:
Neuroscience, Development, Disorders of the Nervous System

This chapter focuses on signaling and homeostasis. Electrical signaling in nervous systems involves considerable fluxes of ions across the neuronal membranes to carry electrical charge in and out. ... More


Astrocyte Neurotransmitter Uptake

Raymond A. Swanson

in Neuroglia

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195152227
eISBN:
9780199865024
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195152227.003.0027
Subject:
Neuroscience, Development, Disorders of the Nervous System

The action of neurotransmitters can be terminated by cleavage, diffusion, binding, or cellular uptake. In some cases, uptake is accomplished by glial cells localized at or near the synapse. Glial ... More


Growth Factors for Neurons Provided by Macroglial Cells

Bernhard Reuss and Klaus Unsicker

in Neuroglia

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195152227
eISBN:
9780199865024
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195152227.003.0030
Subject:
Neuroscience, Development, Disorders of the Nervous System

Neuronal survival and functions require bidirectional communication between neurons and glia that involves a large variety of growth factors. Neurotrophic factors are operationally defined as ... More


Astrocyte Injury

Christopher J. Feeney and Peter K. Stys

in Neuroglia

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195152227
eISBN:
9780199865024
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195152227.003.0033
Subject:
Neuroscience, Development, Disorders of the Nervous System

A general perception has emerged over the past two decades of research that astrocytes are relatively resistant to insults such as those caused by ischemia [oxygen/glucose deprivation (OGD)], and ... More


Response of Microglia to Brain Injury

Kazuyuki Nakajima and Shinichi Kohsaka

in Neuroglia

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195152227
eISBN:
9780199865024
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195152227.003.0035
Subject:
Neuroscience, Development, Disorders of the Nervous System

This chapter discusses the response of microglia to brain injuries. Microglia are activated to induce various cellular changes, including morphology, immunohistochemical properties, proliferative ... More


Reaction of Glial Cells in Infectious Disorders of the Central Nervous System

Martina Deckert and Dirk Schlüter

in Neuroglia

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195152227
eISBN:
9780199865024
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195152227.003.0047
Subject:
Neuroscience, Development, Disorders of the Nervous System

This chapter shows the disease-specific, individual, and finely tuned reaction pattern of astrocytes and microglia during central nervous system (CNS) infections and their contribution to the ... More


The Concept of Neuroglia: A Historical Perspective

Helmut Kettenmann and Bruce R. Ransom (eds)

in Neuroglia

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195152227
eISBN:
9780199865024
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195152227.003.0001
Subject:
Neuroscience, Development, Disorders of the Nervous System

This chapter provides a historical perspective that highlights the early period of glial research. Topics covered include Virchow's invention of the term neuroglia in 1856, Heinrich Müller' picture ... More


Glial Targets of Developmental Exposure to Ethanol

Consuelo Guerri, Gemma Rubert, and Maria Pascual

in Brain Development: Normal Processes and the Effects of Alcohol and Nicotine

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780195183139
eISBN:
9780199865147
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195183139.003.0018
Subject:
Neuroscience, Development

Glia are recognized as active partners with neurons as participants in neurotransmission and they play essential roles in axonal conduction, synaptic plasticity, and information processing. In the ... More


The role of astrocytes in axon guidance during development and repair

Haila Vickland and Jerry Silver

in Glial Cell Development: basic principles and clinical relevance

Published in print:
1997
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9781872748542
eISBN:
9780191724367
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9781872748542.003.0010
Subject:
Neuroscience, Development

Axon guidance depends on a combination of factors, including tissue architecture and supporting and inhibitory molecules that act locally to direct growth. This chapter presents some of the evidence ... More


Origins and early development of oligodendrocytes

William D. Richardson, Nigel P. Pringle, Wei-Ping Yu, Ellen J. Collarini, and Anita Hall

in Glial Cell Development: basic principles and clinical relevance

Published in print:
1997
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9781872748542
eISBN:
9780191724367
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9781872748542.003.0003
Subject:
Neuroscience, Development

This chapter begins with a discussion of the formation of the nervous system. It then describes oligodendrocyte precursors, migration of O-2A progenitors during normal development, oligodendrocyte ... More


Brain energy metabolism and the physiological basis of the haemodynamic response

Albert Gjedde

in Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging: An Introduction to Methods

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780192630711
eISBN:
9780191724770
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780192630711.003.0002
Subject:
Neuroscience, Techniques

. This chapter emphasizes the general principles of brain metabolism and the haemodynamic response to neuronal activity. The precise mechanisms responsible for the links between brain energy ... More


Estrogenic Regulation of Glia and Neuroinflammation

Andrea Crespo-Castrillo, Maria Angeles Arevalo, Luis M. Garcia-Segura, and Natalia Yanguas-Casás

in Estrogens and Memory: Basic Research and Clinical Implications

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
February 2020
ISBN:
9780190645908
eISBN:
9780190645922
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190645908.003.0008
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience

This chapter on estrogenic regulation of glia and neuroinflammation reviews the role of glial cells in the modulation of synaptic function under physiological conditions and in the regulation of the ... More


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