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Experimental resurrection of ancient biomolecules: gene synthesis, heterologous protein expression, and functional assays

Eric A. Gaucher

in Ancestral Sequence Reconstruction

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780199299188
eISBN:
9780191714979
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199299188.003.0014
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Approximately twenty studies have emerged where specific molecular systems from extinct organisms have been resurrected for study in the laboratory. These include digestive proteins (ribonucleases, ... More


Introduction

Toshimasa Yasukata

in Lessing's Philosophy of Religion and the German Enlightenment

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195144949
eISBN:
9780199834891
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195144945.003.0001
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy of Religion

Presents an argument for Lessing's significance for German intellectual history as well as his significance for modern Protestant theology. The assertion made here is that Lessing, as a pioneer among ... More


Measurements in the human body or its products

Emily White, Bruce K. Armstrong, and Rodolfo Saracci

in Principles of Exposure Measurement in Epidemiology: Collecting, Evaluating, and Improving Measures of Disease Risk Factors

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198509851
eISBN:
9780191723827
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198509851.003.0009
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

Measurements made directly on the human body or on samples of blood, urine, or other products are in principle ideal to measure exposures. They can be objective, individualized, quantitatively ... More


Experimental techniques: sample preparation

Dennis Sherwood and Jon Cooper

in Crystals, X-rays and Proteins: Comprehensive Protein Crystallography

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780199559046
eISBN:
9780191595028
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199559046.003.0010
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography: Physics

This chapter discusses the basic molecular biology of cloning a gene of interest and expressing the corresponding protein in a suitable host. It covers the principles underlying protein purification ... More


In vitro motility assay

Haruo Sugi

in Current Methods in Muscle Physiology: Advantages, Problems and Limitations

Published in print:
1998
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198523970
eISBN:
9780191724480
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198523970.003.0007
Subject:
Neuroscience, Techniques

This chapter discusses the advantages, problems, and limitations of some in vitro motility assay systems hitherto developed by various researchers. Because of space limitation, it only focuses on ... More


Testing the Evolutionary Genetics of Personality: Do Balanced Selection and Gene Flow Cause Genetically Adapted Personality Differences in Human Populations?

Andrea Camperio Ciani

in The Evolution of Personality and Individual Differences

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780195372090
eISBN:
9780199893485
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195372090.003.0015
Subject:
Psychology, Evolutionary Psychology, Social Psychology

This chapter provides empirical evidence bearing on three competing evolutionary genetic scenarios: neutral selection, mutation selection, and balancing selection. Using an innovative research design ... More


Risk Assessment

Sigmund F. Zakrzewski (ed.)

in Environmental Toxicology

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195148114
eISBN:
9780197565629
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195148114.003.0012
Subject:
Chemistry, Environmental Chemistry

The purpose of risk assessment is estimation of the severity of harmful effects to human health and the environment that may result from exposure to chemicals present in the environment. The ... More


Spectrophotometric assays

T. J. Mantle and D. A. Harris

in Spectrophotometry and Spectrofluorimetry: A Practical Approach

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780199638130
eISBN:
9780191918179
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199638130.003.0011
Subject:
Chemistry, Organic Chemistry

Chapter 1 describes the principles and practice of spectrophotometry, and in this chapter we will consider how this technique can be used to measure the amount of analyte in solution, when the ... More


In vivo techniques and analysis

J. A. Angus, C. E. Wright, K. Sudhir, and G. J. Jennings

in The Pharmacology of Vascular Smooth Muscle

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780192623874
eISBN:
9780191724671
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780192623874.003.0004
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems

When scientists aim to understand the mechanism of action of a drug on the vascular system, they will seek the ultimate experiment in a chosen test system stripped of its layers of complex ... More


Molecular Mechanisms Controlling Brain Aromatase Expression

Nobuhiro Harada and Shin-ichiro Honda

in Brain Aromatase, Estrogens, and Behavior

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199841196
eISBN:
9780199979837
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199841196.003.0008
Subject:
Neuroscience, Neuroendocrine and Autonomic

Aromatase is expressed not only in gonadal tissues but also in nongonadal tissues including the brain, and participates in various tissue-specific functions through local production of estrogens. To ... More


Anticoagulants

Richard C. Becker and Frederick A. Spencer

in Fibrinolytic and Antithrombotic Therapy: Theory, Practice, and Management

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195155648
eISBN:
9780197561959
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195155648.003.0036
Subject:
Clinical Medicine and Allied Health, Cardiovascular Medicine

Because of the narrow therapeutic index of warfarin and unfractionated heparin (UFH), monitoring their anticoagulant effects is required. On the other hand, lowmolecular- weight heparin (LMWH) and ... More


Genetic Analysis Using Microsphere Arrays

John P. Nolan and Alina Desphande

in Flow Cytometry for Biotechnology

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195183146
eISBN:
9780197561898
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195183146.003.0019
Subject:
Chemistry, Physical Chemistry

The use of DNA microarrays to analyze simultaneously many genetic features from a sample is providing a new perspective on the effect of the genome on normal biological processes and disease ... More


Uses of Flow Cytometry in Preclinical Safety Pharmacology and Toxicology

Scott W. Burchiel and James L. Weaver

in Flow Cytometry for Biotechnology

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195183146
eISBN:
9780197561898
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195183146.003.0020
Subject:
Chemistry, Physical Chemistry

During the last decade, commercial bench-top and multilaser flow cytometers have become widely available in academic, industrial, and government research laboratories. These flow cytometers provide ... More


Genes and Hormones

Perrin C . White

in Textbook of Endocrine Physiology

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780199744121
eISBN:
9780197563045
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199744121.003.0005
Subject:
Clinical Medicine and Allied Health, Endocrinology and Diabetes

Much of the knowledge presented in the following chapters has been gained using molecular genetic techniques to analyze the structure, synthesis, regulation, and effects of hormones. This chapter ... More


Assessment of Endocrine Function

Sumitha S. Hathiramani and Hans K. Ghayee

in Textbook of Endocrine Physiology

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780199744121
eISBN:
9780197563045
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199744121.003.0007
Subject:
Clinical Medicine and Allied Health, Endocrinology and Diabetes

This chapter describes the various methods used for quantifying concentrations of circulating hormones and thus assessing endocrine function. The paradigm of feedback regulation (for example, of ... More


How Might We Get from Genes to Circuits to Disease?

Tobias Kaiser, Yuan Mei, and Guoping Feng

in Translational Neuroscience: Toward New Therapies

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
September 2016
ISBN:
9780262029865
eISBN:
9780262329859
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262029865.003.0008
Subject:
Neuroscience, Research and Theory

Recent advances in the identification of risk genes for psychiatric disorders have set the stage for functional interrogation of disease related-circuits and underlying mechanisms of pathophysiology. ... More


Genetics and epigenetics of parental care

Frances A. Champagne and James P. Curley

in The Evolution of Parental Care

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199692576
eISBN:
9780191774737
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199692576.003.0017
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter describes how both genetic and epigenetic approaches have been applied to the study of parental care/caregiving, with a particular focus on species in which there have been molecular ... More


Elements of Enlightenment

Hjalmar Fors

in The Limits of Matter: Chemistry, Mining, and Enlightenment

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780226194998
eISBN:
9780226195049
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226195049.003.0005
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter investigates the interconnectedness of mining knowledge in a wider German and Swedish cultural sphere, and how the Officials of the Bureau began to distinguish themselves from their ... More


Infectious Diseases in the Serengeti: What We Know and How We Know It

Tiziana Lembo, Harriet Auty, Katie Hampson, Meggan E. Craft, Andy Dobson, Robert Fyumagwa, Eblate Ernest, Dan Haydon, Richard Hoare, Magai Kaare, Felix Lankester, Titus Mlengeya, Dominic Travis, and Sarah Cleaveland

in Serengeti IV: Sustaining biodiversity in a coupled human-natural system

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
September 2015
ISBN:
9780226195834
eISBN:
9780226196336
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226196336.003.0019
Subject:
Biology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology

Long-term studies in the Serengeti have provided important insights into how multiple approaches can be effectively deployed for generating and analyzing essential data on the dynamics and impacts of ... More


Development and Validation of a Serologic Testing Algorithm for Recent HIV Seroconversion

Glen A. Satten, Robert S. Janssen, Susan Stramer, and Michael P. Busch

in Quantitative Evaluation of HIV Prevention Programs

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
October 2013
ISBN:
9780300087512
eISBN:
9780300128222
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Yale University Press
DOI:
10.12987/yale/9780300087512.003.0015
Subject:
Sociology, Health, Illness, and Medicine

This chapter discusses the STARHS assay strategy, an approach that estimates HIV incidence. The STARHS approach is validated by comparing cross-sectionally calculated HIV incidence with ... More


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