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Selection: The Mechanism of Evolution

Graham Bell

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780198569725
eISBN:
9780191717741
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198569725.001.0001
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Adaptation is caused by selection continually winnowing the genetic variation created by mutation. In the last ten years, our knowledge of how selection operates on populations in the field and in ... More


Case studies of the differential-equilibrium hypothesis of sexual size dimorphism in two dung fly species

Wolf U. Blanckenhorn

in Sex, Size and Gender Roles: Evolutionary Studies of Sexual Size Dimorphism

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199208784
eISBN:
9780191709036
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199208784.003.0012
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology

This chapter describes studies on two common dung fly species with contrasting sexual size dimorphism (SSD): females are the larger sex in Sepsis cynipsea but the smaller sex in Scathophaga ... More


Simple selection

Graham Bell

in Selection: The Mechanism of Evolution

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780198569725
eISBN:
9780191717741
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198569725.003.0001
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

The action of selection is based on a few simple principles that are general to all self-replicating systems, and which constitute a distinct branch of science. This introductory chapter presents a ... More


The Place of Artificial Selection in Charles Darwin's Theory of Evolution through Natural Selection

Michael Ruse

in Philosophy of Science Matters: The Philosophy of Peter Achinstein

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780199738625
eISBN:
9780199894642
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199738625.003.0016
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

How important are metaphors and analogies in science and what form do they take? Peter Achinstein's Concepts of Science is the definitive modern lynchpin of this discussion in modern philosophy of ... More


Behavior and Neurobiology

Justin S. Rhodes and Tadeusz J. Kawecki

in Experimental Evolution: Concepts, Methods, and Applications of Selection Experiments

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520247666
eISBN:
9780520944473
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520247666.003.0011
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter presents some of the methods in experimental evolution that can be used to study the evolution of behavior, illustrating how these can be applied toward understanding the origin and ... More


Racial Noise, Hybridity, and Miscegenation in World Music

Roshanak Kheshti

in Modernity'S Ear: Listening to Race and Gender in World Music

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9781479867011
eISBN:
9781479861125
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
NYU Press
DOI:
10.18574/nyu/9781479867011.003.0005
Subject:
Society and Culture, Cultural Studies

Chapter 4 critically reads the ethos of cross-cultural collaboration promoted by this culture industry through the trope of musical hybridity. By theorizing the links between hybridity and ... More


Population Genetics of Complex Traits

Daniel L. Hartl

in A Primer of Population Genetics and Genomics

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
August 2020
ISBN:
9780198862291
eISBN:
9780191895074
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198862291.003.0008
Subject:
Biology, Biomathematics / Statistics and Data Analysis / Complexity Studies, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Chapter 8’s focus is on the genetic architecture of complex traits determined jointly by multiple genes and environmental factors. Sometimes called quantitative genetics, the basic concepts include ... More


The Domestication of Language: Cultural Evolution and the Uniqueness of the Human Animal

Daniel Cloud

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231167925
eISBN:
9780231538282
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231167925.001.0001
Subject:
Linguistics, Psycholinguistics / Neurolinguistics / Cognitive Linguistics

Language did not evolve only in the distant past. Our shared understanding of the meanings of words is ever-changing, and we make conscious, rational decisions about which words to use and what to ... More


From Biological Evolution to Social Evolution

Shiping Tang

in The Social Evolution of International Politics

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780199658336
eISBN:
9780191756054
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199658336.003.0002
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

This chapter summarizes a more detailed discussion on what social evolution is as a phenomenon and as a paradigm developed elsewhere (Tang 2014-15). It also provides a brief critique of some of the ... More


Good Breeding: The Art of Mating

Evelleen Richards

in Darwin and the Making of Sexual Selection

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9780226436906
eISBN:
9780226437064
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226437064.003.0006
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Chapter 6 deals with Darwin’s immersion in the practices of animal breeders and pigeon fanciers and his reconstitution of the notion of aesthetic preference by artificial selection. It is argued ... More


Behavior, Stress, and Evolution in Light of the Novosibirsk Selection Experiments

Arkady L. Markel and Lyudmila N. Trut

in Transformations of Lamarckism: From Subtle Fluids to Molecular Biology

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262015141
eISBN:
9780262295642
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262015141.003.0017
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter discusses experiments on animal domestication carried out by Dmitri Belyaev in 1958. Using silver black foxes (Vulpes vulpes) as subjects, Belyaev explored the role of the stress of the ... More


Adaptive Enemies

David Kilcullen

in The Dragons and the Snakes: How the Rest Learned to Fight the West

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
March 2020
ISBN:
9780190265687
eISBN:
9780190932787
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190265687.003.0004
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

This chapter draws on key concepts from evolutionary theory, anthropology, and social science to explore how adaptive enemies evolve and adapt under conditions of conflict. It identifies four key ... More


Age and Size at Maturity

Derek A. Roff

in Evolutionary Ecology: Concepts and Case Studies

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195131543
eISBN:
9780197561461
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195131543.003.0013
Subject:
Environmental Science, Applied Ecology

Age and size at maturity have been an object of interest to humans since the domestication of animals and plants, for one of the objectives of ... More


Adaptation

David Reznick and Joseph Travis

in Evolutionary Ecology: Concepts and Case Studies

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195131543
eISBN:
9780197561461
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195131543.003.0008
Subject:
Environmental Science, Applied Ecology

When Charles Darwin and Alfred Russell Wallace proposed their theory of evolution by natural selection, the concepts of evolution and speciation were not ... More


What’s Accomplished in Conversation?

Daniel Cloud

in The Domestication of Language: Cultural Evolution and the Uniqueness of the Human Animal

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231167925
eISBN:
9780231538282
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231167925.003.0009
Subject:
Linguistics, Psycholinguistics / Neurolinguistics / Cognitive Linguistics

This chapter first examines H. P. Grice's theory of conversation. Grice argued that human conversations generally revolve around a presumption of a common purpose. We sometimes may be deluded in ... More


The Art of Science: Nineteenth-Century Theory and the Logic of Practice

Philipp Erchinger

in Artful Experiments: Ways of Knowing in Victorian Literature and Science

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9781474438957
eISBN:
9781474453790
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press
DOI:
10.3366/edinburgh/9781474438957.003.0002
Subject:
Literature, 19th-century and Victorian Literature

This chapter examines how nineteenth-century philosophers from William Paley and Charles Darwin to John S. Mill and William Whewell described and debated the relations between art and science as well ... More


From Bricolage to BioBricksTM: Synthetic Biology and Rational Design

Tim Lewens

in The Biological Foundations of Bioethics

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
April 2015
ISBN:
9780198712657
eISBN:
9780191781001
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198712657.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science, Moral Philosophy

Synthetic biology is often described as a project that applies rational design methods to the organic world. Although humans have influenced organic lineages in many ways, it is nonetheless ... More


Canis familiaris

Alexandra Horowitz

in The Ethics of Captivity

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
June 2014
ISBN:
9780199977994
eISBN:
9780199375172
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199977994.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy, General

The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, presents an unusual case study for the consideration of captivity of nonhuman animals. On one level, the captivity of the species is discussable: by virtue of the ... More


Organisms as Manufactures

Alain Pottage and Brad Sherman

in Figures of Invention: A History of Modern Patent Law

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
April 2015
ISBN:
9780199595631
eISBN:
9780191807282
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199595631.003.0008
Subject:
Law, Intellectual Property, IT, and Media Law

This chapter examines whether products of nature and living organisms such as plants can be considered manufactures or inventions that are patentable. It first discusses the relevant provisions of ... More


Woolsey’s Snakes

David Kilcullen

in The Dragons and the Snakes: How the Rest Learned to Fight the West

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
March 2020
ISBN:
9780190265687
eISBN:
9780190932787
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190265687.003.0005
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

This chapter applies the evolutionary concepts explained in Chapter 2 to a series of case studies of nonstate adversaries. It explores how specific nonstate adversaries have adapted and evolved since ... More


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