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Functional Heterogeneity in Striatal Subregions and Neurotransmitter Systems: Implications for Understanding the Neural Substrates Underlying Appetitive Motivation and Learning

Brian A. Baldo and Matthew E. Andrzejewski

in Dopamine Handbook

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780195373035
eISBN:
9780199865543
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195373035.003.0021
Subject:
Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems, History of Neuroscience

This chapter focuses on how advances in the study of striatal anatomy and physiology have informed our appreciation of dopamine's role in appetitive motivation, with an emphasis on studies of feeding ... More


A Neurobiology for the Interactional Instinct

Namhee Lee, Lisa Mikesell, Anna Dina L. Joaquin, Andrea W. Mates, and John H. Schumann

in The Interactional Instinct: The Evolution and Acquisition of Language

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195384246
eISBN:
9780199869916
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195384246.003.0006
Subject:
Linguistics, Sociolinguistics / Anthropological Linguistics

The interactional instinct consists of an appetitive and a consummatory component. The biology underlying consummation develops first and involves the expression of endogenous opiates during ... More


Republic IV: The Division of the Soul

Terence Irwin

in Plato's Ethics

Published in print:
1995
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195086454
eISBN:
9780199833306
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195086457.003.0013
Subject:
Philosophy, Ancient Philosophy

The aim of this chapter is to discuss the moral relevance of the theory of the division of soul. Firstly, it is examined why it is impossible to reconcile this doctrine with instrumentalism. ... More


Republic VIII–IX on Justice

Terence Irwin

in Plato's Ethics

Published in print:
1995
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195086454
eISBN:
9780199833306
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195086457.003.0017
Subject:
Philosophy, Ancient Philosophy

This chapter studies the later books of the Republic in order to see how the distinctions between the different kinds of justice, presented in previous chapter, work in the last part of the dialogue. ... More


Platonic Love

Terence Irwin

in Plato's Ethics

Published in print:
1995
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195086454
eISBN:
9780199833306
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195086457.003.0018
Subject:
Philosophy, Ancient Philosophy

The main goal of chapter 18 is to emphasise the importance of love in the Republic but also more generally in Plato’s ethics. To begin with, it is considered how love is able to fill the gap between ... More


Extending the Approach

Michael Slote

in Morals from Motives

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195138375
eISBN:
9780199833696
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195138376.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

Views that understand both morality and human well‐being in agent‐based terms can be called ”hyper‐agent‐based.” The present such approach treats each of the agent‐based elements of practical ... More


A New View of UtilityMaximizing “Optimal Investment”

Dylan M. Smith, Stephanie L. Brown, and Mary L. Rigdon

in Moving Beyond Self-Interest: Perspectives from Evolutionary Biology, Neuroscience, and the Social Sciences

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780195388107
eISBN:
9780199918386
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195388107.003.0064
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

In this brief essay, we review benefits of the caregiving system for health and well-being, and argue that these benefits are not reflected in economic models of how to maximize utility. We then ... More


Central Neural Circuits Regulating Maternal Behavior in Nonhuman Mammals

Michael Numan

in The Parental Brain: Mechanisms, Development, and Evolution

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
July 2020
ISBN:
9780190848675
eISBN:
9780190848705
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190848675.003.0005
Subject:
Neuroscience, Development

Chapter 5 reviews the brain circuits that regulate maternal behavior in nonhuman mammals. The medial preoptic area (MPOA) is essential for both the onset and maintenance of maternal behavior. ... More


Emotion is for doing: The Action tendency component1

Johnny J. R. Fontaine and Klaus R. Scherer

in Components of Emotional Meaning: A sourcebook

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780199592746
eISBN:
9780191762765
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199592746.003.0012
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology, Developmental Psychology

We explain the operationalization of the Action tendency component based on Frijda's action readiness theory. The action tendencies of approach, avoidance, being-with, attending, rejection, ... More


Vocalizations as indicators of emotional states in rats and cats

Stefan M. Brudzynski

in Evolution of Emotional Communication: From Sounds in Nonhuman Mammals to Speech and Music in Man

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2013
ISBN:
9780199583560
eISBN:
9780191747489
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199583560.003.0005
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Evolutionary Psychology

Two mesolimbic tegmental systems are involved in the initiation and maintenance of two basic emotional states. The ascending cholinergic system can initiate a negative state with accompanying ... More


The Hungry Brain

Paul Fletcher

in Sustainable Consumption: Multi-disciplinary Perspectives In Honour of Professor Sir Partha Dasgupta

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
September 2014
ISBN:
9780199679355
eISBN:
9780191758423
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199679355.003.0006
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

The chapter summarizes neuroscience research on what drives consumption of food and introduces the concepts of appetitive behaviours and consummatory behaviours, the former being what governs the ... More


Porphyry and Iamblichus

Michael Bland Simmons

in Universal Salvation in Late Antiquity: Porphyry of Tyre and the Pagan-Christian Debate

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
June 2015
ISBN:
9780190202392
eISBN:
9780190202415
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190202392.003.0008
Subject:
Classical Studies, Ancient Religions

The differences and similarities between Porphyry and Iamblichus on the nature of the soul and the role played by philosophy and religion in enabling its purification and ultimate ascent to the One ... More


Euroecology of Predator–prey Interactions

Charles D. Derby and Richard K. Zimmer

in Chemical Ecology in Aquatic Systems

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780199583096
eISBN:
9780191810091
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199583096.003.0012
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

This chapter discusses the neuroecology of predation. An act of predation requires integration of complex chemosensory information as a function of ecological context and proximity of prey. The ... More


Kantian Imperfect Duties

Barbara Herman

in The Moral Habitat

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
November 2021
ISBN:
9780192896353
eISBN:
9780191918797
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780192896353.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy, Political Philosophy

This chapter explicates Kantian imperfect duties and their source-value in obligatory ends. Imperfect duties add material and psychological resources to make the moral habitat safe and accessible. ... More


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