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Basic Concepts

Stephen Handel

in Perceptual Coherence: Hearing and seeing

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195169645
eISBN:
9780199786732
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195169645.003.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

Hearing and seeing is the abstraction of the structured sensory energy that signifies objects out of the ongoing flux. For both, all sensations are understood to belong to objects and are understood ... More


Satellite Networks and Services: Solutions for Pan-India Coverage

Varadharajan Sridhar

in The Telecom Revolution in India: Technology, Regulation, and Policy

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780198075530
eISBN:
9780199081042
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198075530.003.0007
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

This chapter describes the technologies, market structure, and regulatory issues of Very Small Aperture Terminals (VSATs). These networks if interconnected to other networks such as the Public ... More


Evolution of the Vertebrate Eye

James K. Bowmaker

in How Animals See the World: Comparative Behavior, Biology, and Evolution of Vision

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780195334654
eISBN:
9780199933167
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195334654.003.0024
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter describes the evolution of vertebrate “camera” eyes and concentrates on color vision and visual pigments. The vertebrate camera eye with a lens, a variable pupil aperture, and a ... More


Resolution

G. A. D. Briggs and O. V. Kolosov

in Acoustic Microscopy: Second Edition

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199232734
eISBN:
9780191716355
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199232734.003.0003
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

Since the aberrations of the lens are negligible, the resolution of the acoustic microscope is essentially limited by diffraction. If the lens has a high numerical aperture the resolution is ... More


Lens design and selection

G. A. D. Briggs and O. V. Kolosov

in Acoustic Microscopy: Second Edition

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199232734
eISBN:
9780191716355
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199232734.003.0004
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

For interior imaging, a lens with relatively small numerical aperture is required, in order to increase the working distance and limit spherical aberrations due to refraction at the surface of the ... More


Fraunhofer Diffraction

B. D. Guenther

in Modern Optics

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
January 2016
ISBN:
9780198738770
eISBN:
9780191801983
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198738770.003.0010
Subject:
Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics

The Huygens–Fresnel integral is solved with the assumption that all waves in the aperture are plane waves. This assumption leads to Fraunhofer diffraction. Diffraction is a strong function of source ... More


Self-organizing capacity in leaf behaviour

Anthony Trewavas

in Plant Behaviour and Intelligence

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
November 2014
ISBN:
9780199539543
eISBN:
9780191788291
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199539543.003.0012
Subject:
Biology, Plant Sciences and Forestry

Leaves are often in a dynamic state on the adult plant. Senescence and loss through abscission, is the usual fate although this can be accelerated by various environmental conditions including ... More


The Aperture Capture Illusion

Evan M. Palmer and Philip J. Kellman

in The Oxford Compendium of Visual Illusions

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
June 2017
ISBN:
9780199794607
eISBN:
9780190654795
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199794607.003.0102
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Vision

Perception of object shape is typically accurate and robust, even when objects move behind occluding surfaces, thus fragmenting their visible regions across space and over time. However, when an ... More


Epilogue, 2001–2004

Peter J. Westwick

in Into the Black: JPL and the American Space Program, 1976-2004

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
October 2013
ISBN:
9780300110753
eISBN:
9780300134582
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Yale University Press
DOI:
10.12987/yale/9780300110753.003.0019
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter focuses on Charles Elachi's succession of Ed Stone as director of JPL. Members of the search committee thought JPL needed someone from outside the lab to respond to the Mars failures, ... More


The geometry of a single fracture

Pierre M. Adler, Jean-François Thovert, and Valeri V. Mourzenko

in Fractured Porous Media

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199666515
eISBN:
9780191748639
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199666515.003.0002
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter addresses the geometry of a single fracture with a double objective which is to characterize it and to reproduce it. The geometrical quantities which characterize the structure of a ... More


Space Technology

Peter J. Westwick

in Into the Black: JPL and the American Space Program, 1976-2004

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
October 2013
ISBN:
9780300110753
eISBN:
9780300134582
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Yale University Press
DOI:
10.12987/yale/9780300110753.003.0007
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter focuses on JPL's resumption of defense work in an effort to retain its staff, which declining NASA budgets could no longer support. These people had had a series of remarkable ... More


What makes a good eye?

Michael F. Land and Dan-Eric Nilsson

in Animal Eyes

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199581139
eISBN:
9780191774652
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199581139.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology

Eyes can be characterized by their resolution and sensitivity. Resolution is the fineness, in angular terms, with which the optical environment is sampled. Sensitivity is quantifiable as the number ... More


Evidence from Motion

Dale Purves

in Brains as Engines of Association: An Operating Principle for Nervous Systems

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
March 2020
ISBN:
9780190880163
eISBN:
9780190054991
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190880163.003.0009
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems

Perceived motion is defined as the apparent speed and direction of objects that are translating and/or rotating in three-dimensional space. It has long been clear, however, that the perceived speeds ... More


Apertures, Draw, and Syntax: Remodeling Attention

Brian Bruya

in Effortless Attention: A New Perspective in the Cognitive Science of Attention and Action

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262013840
eISBN:
9780262269438
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262013840.003.0012
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter develops a model to examine the role of apertures, draws, and syntax (ADS) in remodelling and understanding attention; the model addresses all the concerned observations one by one and ... More


The Biology of Revolution: Mapping Mutation with Diane Arbus

Robin Blyn

in The Freak-garde: Extraordinary Bodies and Revolutionary Art in America

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
August 2015
ISBN:
9780816678167
eISBN:
9781452947853
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Minnesota Press
DOI:
10.5749/minnesota/9780816678167.003.0005
Subject:
Art, Visual Culture

This chapter juxtaposes the freak photographs taken by Diane Arbus with the philosophy of Herbert Marcuse, the so-called father of the New Left. It reveals the deep engagement of the photos that were ... More


Guided Waves

B. D. Guenther

in Modern Optics Simplified

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
January 2020
ISBN:
9780198842859
eISBN:
9780191878770
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198842859.003.0008
Subject:
Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics

Use a one-dimension theory based on the normal to a plane wave to evaluate the propagation of light in a dielectric layer. If the ray strikes the walls of the guide it must meet the condition for ... More


The Aperture Problem: Illusions Arising During the Integration and Segmentation of Motion Within and Across Apertures

Maggie Shiffrar

in The Oxford Compendium of Visual Illusions

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
June 2017
ISBN:
9780199794607
eISBN:
9780190654795
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199794607.003.0076
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Vision

The accurate visual perception of an object’s motion requires the simultaneous integration of motion information arising from that object along with the segmentation of motion information from other ... More


Signal and Image Synthesis: Alternating Projections Onto Convex Sets

Robert J Marks II

in Handbook of Fourier Analysis & Its Applications

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195335927
eISBN:
9780197562567
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195335927.003.0016
Subject:
Computer Science, Mathematical Theory of Computation

Alternating projections onto convex sets (POCS) [319, 918, 1324, 1333] is a powerful tool for signal and image restoration and synthesis. The desirable properties of a reconstructed signal may be ... More


The Human Facial Skeletons from Sunghir

Erik Trinkaus, Alexandra P. Buzhilova, Maria B. Mednikova, and Maria V. Dobrovolskaya

in The People of Sunghir: Burials, Bodies, and Behavior in the Earlier Upper Paleolithic

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780199381050
eISBN:
9780197562956
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199381050.003.0011
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Palaeontology: Earth Sciences

The human (and mammalian) facial skeleton is a complex response to the protection, support, and functional demands of a diversity of neurological and physiological processes that must be ... More


How We See and Recognize Object Motion: Visual form and motion perception obey complementary laws

Stephen Grossberg

in Conscious Mind, Resonant Brain: How Each Brain Makes a Mind

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
July 2021
ISBN:
9780190070557
eISBN:
9780190070588
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190070557.003.0008
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter explains why visual motion perception is not just perception of the changing positions of moving objects. Computationally complementary processes process static objects with different ... More


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