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Abnormalities in monetary and other non-drug reward processing in drug addiction

Rita Z. Goldstein

in Decision Making, Affect, and Learning: Attention and Performance XXIII

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780199600434
eISBN:
9780191725623
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199600434.003.0021
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Developmental Psychology

Adaptations of the reward circuit to intermittent and chronic supraphysiological stimulation by drugs increase reward thresholds. As a consequence, response to non-drug reinforcers in individuals ... More


A brief history of the anhedonia hypothesis

Roy A. Wise

in Appetite: Neural and Behavioural Bases

Published in print:
1994
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198547877
eISBN:
9780191724275
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198547877.003.0010
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience

This chapter discusses the history of the so-called anhedonia hypothesis. The term anhedonia was first used in 1978 in connection with the assertion that pimozide blocks the reward quality of food. ... More


Loss of emotional fluency as a developmental phenotype: the example of anhedonia

Stephanie Dubai and Roland Jouvent

in Emotional Development:: Recent Research Advances

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198528845
eISBN:
9780191689567
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198528845.003.0016
Subject:
Psychology, Developmental Psychology

Anhedonia is the loss the of the capacity to experience pleasure and is considered a risk factor for psychopathology. This chapter considers anhedonia to be a loss of emotional fluency and addresses ... More


What are the Symptoms of Schizophrenia?

Stephen J. Glatt, Stephen V. Faraone, and Ming T. Tsuang

in Schizophrenia

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780198813774
eISBN:
9780191917233
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198813774.003.0007
Subject:
Clinical Medicine and Allied Health, Psychiatry

Schizophrenia symptoms fall into two categories: positive and negative symp­toms. Positive symptoms are behaviours or experiences outside the normal range of human ... More


Mood disorders

Rebecca McKnight, Jonathan Price, and John Geddes

in Psychiatry

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780198754008
eISBN:
9780191917011
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198754008.003.0029
Subject:
Clinical Medicine and Allied Health, Psychiatry

Variations in mood are part of normal experience; we all have our ‘good’ and ‘bad’ days and different ways of managing these. Sadness is a natural ... More


The Nervous Breakdown

Edward Shorter

in How Everyone Became Depressed: The Rise and Fall of the Nervous Breakdown

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780199948086
eISBN:
9780197563304
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199948086.003.0010
Subject:
Clinical Medicine and Allied Health, Psychiatry

Nervous breakdown has never been a medical term. It is a patients’ term, just as cerumen has always been a doctors’ term for ear wax. Yet patients once believed ... More


Something Wrong with the Label

Edward Shorter

in How Everyone Became Depressed: The Rise and Fall of the Nervous Breakdown

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780199948086
eISBN:
9780197563304
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199948086.003.0012
Subject:
Clinical Medicine and Allied Health, Psychiatry

How did everyone become depressed? A depression needed to be created that could be applied to everyone. The drafters of the third edition of the American Psychiatric ... More


The Psychiatric Examination of the Neurologic Patient

Constantine G. Lyketsos

in Title Pages

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195309430
eISBN:
9780197562451
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195309430.003.0007
Subject:
Clinical Medicine and Allied Health, Psychiatry

A well-conducted psychiatric evaluation is central to the care of neurologic patients with psychiatric disorders. The evaluation is aimed at defining the ... More


Anxiety

Edward Shorter

in How Everyone Became Depressed: The Rise and Fall of the Nervous Breakdown

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780199948086
eISBN:
9780197563304
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199948086.003.0008
Subject:
Clinical Medicine and Allied Health, Psychiatry

In 1970 Aubrey Lewis, the past master of the Maudsley Hospital, England’s premier psychiatric facility, was 70 years old. In his long decades of experience, he was ... More


Understanding Depression

Marie Chellingsworth

in Adult Nursing Practice: Using evidence in care

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780199697410
eISBN:
9780191918476
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199697410.003.0018
Subject:
Clinical Medicine and Allied Health, Nursing

The aim of this chapter is to provide you with the knowledge to be able to recognize, assess, manage, and care for people with depression in an ... More


Orbitofrontal cortex damage effects in humans and other primates

Edmund T. Rolls

in The Orbitofrontal Cortex

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
July 2019
ISBN:
9780198845997
eISBN:
9780191881237
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198845997.003.0004
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems

Impairments in the rapid reversal learning of stimulus-reward associations, when expected rewards are not obtained or punishers are obtained, are produced by damage to the orbitofrontal cortex; and ... More


Affective Determinants of Smoking

Danielle E. McCarthy, Jessica W. Cook, Teresa M. Leyro, Haruka Minami, and Krysten W. Bold

in Affective Determinants of Health Behavior

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9780190499037
eISBN:
9780190881375
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190499037.003.0013
Subject:
Psychology, Health Psychology

Cigarette smoking remains a leading preventable cause of death and disease. Prominent drug motivation models posit that affective processes are important drivers of continued and renewed tobacco use. ... More


Meta-Cognition, Mind-Reading, and Humean Moral Agency

Julia Driver

in Moral Psychology and Human Agency: Philosophical Essays on the Science of Ethics

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
December 2014
ISBN:
9780198717812
eISBN:
9780191787324
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198717812.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Moral agency, as opposed to mere agency, is the agency that underlies distinctly moral action. This is in contrast to other sorts of agency. For example, “mere” agency is the sort of agency one sees ... More


Introduction

Lisa Shapiro

in Pleasure: A History

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
June 2018
ISBN:
9780190225100
eISBN:
9780190225131
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190225100.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy, General

This chapter provides an overview of Pleasure: A History. The book traces a narrative in four acts. The first act shows how ancient Greek and medieval philosophers from both the Islamic and Latin ... More


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