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Too Great a Burden to Bear: The Struggle and Failure of the Freedmen's Bureau in Texas

Christopher B. Bean

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9780823268757
eISBN:
9780823271771
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Fordham University Press
DOI:
10.5422/fordham/9780823268757.001.0001
Subject:
History, American History: Civil War

In its brief seven-year existence, the Freedmen’s Bureau became the epicenter of the debate about Reconstruction. Cognizant of its responsibilities, partisans fiercely debated its necessity. ... More


Introduction

Christopher B. Bean

in Too Great a Burden to Bear: The Struggle and Failure of the Freedmen's Bureau in Texas

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9780823268757
eISBN:
9780823271771
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Fordham University Press
DOI:
10.5422/fordham/9780823268757.003.0001
Subject:
History, American History: Civil War

This chapter briefly chronicles the genesis of the Freedmen’s Bureau and its vague mandate. This vagueness ultimately allowed field agents to improvise and adapt as circumstances developed. A very ... More


“A Stranger Amongst Strangers”: Who Were the Subassistant Commissioners?

Christopher B. Bean

in Too Great a Burden to Bear: The Struggle and Failure of the Freedmen's Bureau in Texas

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9780823268757
eISBN:
9780823271771
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Fordham University Press
DOI:
10.5422/fordham/9780823268757.003.0002
Subject:
History, American History: Civil War

This chapter examines the 239 subassistant commissioners. Although brief vignettes of the more notable agents exist, the majority of the chapter comprises graphs and charts of the agents’ ages, ... More


“The Post of Greatest Peril”: The E. M. Gregory Era, September 1865–April 1866

Christopher B. Bean

in Too Great a Burden to Bear: The Struggle and Failure of the Freedmen's Bureau in Texas

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9780823268757
eISBN:
9780823271771
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Fordham University Press
DOI:
10.5422/fordham/9780823268757.003.0003
Subject:
History, American History: Civil War

This chapter examines the brief, yet formative, tenure of the Texas Bureau’s first assistant commissioner, E. M. Gregory. It chronicles the appointment of the first subassistant commissioners, ... More


Conservative Phoenix: The J. B. Kiddoo Era, May 1866–Summer 1866

Christopher B. Bean

in Too Great a Burden to Bear: The Struggle and Failure of the Freedmen's Bureau in Texas

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9780823268757
eISBN:
9780823271771
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Fordham University Press
DOI:
10.5422/fordham/9780823268757.003.0004
Subject:
History, American History: Civil War

This chapter examines the beginning of the J. B. Kiddoo tenure. It begins with the beneficial and adverse effects Kiddoo’s new policy has on subordinates. He focuses subordinates to greater attention ... More


Bureau Expansion, Bureau Courts, and the Black Code: The J. B. Kiddoo Era, Summer 1866–November 1866

Christopher B. Bean

in Too Great a Burden to Bear: The Struggle and Failure of the Freedmen's Bureau in Texas

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9780823268757
eISBN:
9780823271771
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Fordham University Press
DOI:
10.5422/fordham/9780823268757.003.0005
Subject:
History, American History: Civil War

This chapter examines the Bureau’s expansion and renewal. Kiddoo could now offer agents salaries. Kiddoo shied from those with no military experience, believing those with martial experience more ... More


The Bureau’s Highwater Mark: The J. B. Kiddoo Era, November 1866–January 1867

Christopher B. Bean

in Too Great a Burden to Bear: The Struggle and Failure of the Freedmen's Bureau in Texas

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9780823268757
eISBN:
9780823271771
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Fordham University Press
DOI:
10.5422/fordham/9780823268757.003.0006
Subject:
History, American History: Civil War

The Bureau’s apex is chronicled here. It became a true bureaucracy: numerous paperwork and, at times, inefficiency. Agents discovered this firsthand. It chronicles the domestic issues brought for ... More


“They must vote with the party that shed their blood … in giving them liberty”: Bureau Agents, Politics, and the Bureau’s New Order: The Charles Griffin Era, January 1867–Summer 1867

Christopher B. Bean

in Too Great a Burden to Bear: The Struggle and Failure of the Freedmen's Bureau in Texas

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9780823268757
eISBN:
9780823271771
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Fordham University Press
DOI:
10.5422/fordham/9780823268757.003.0007
Subject:
History, American History: Civil War

This chapter begins the tenure of the agency’s third head, Charles Griffin. Griffin oversaw a reinvigorated agency after Congress wrested Reconstruction from the president. Buoyed by this, the agency ... More


Violence, Frustration, and Yellow Fever: The Charles Griffin Era, Summer–Fall 1867

Christopher B. Bean

in Too Great a Burden to Bear: The Struggle and Failure of the Freedmen's Bureau in Texas

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9780823268757
eISBN:
9780823271771
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Fordham University Press
DOI:
10.5422/fordham/9780823268757.003.0008
Subject:
History, American History: Civil War

This chapter chronicles the denouement of Griffin’s tenure. What ended his time in Texas brought great hardship upon subordinates in the field—yellow fever. The disease not only killed the Bureau ... More


General Orders No. 40 and the Freedmen’s Bureau’s End: The J. J. Reynolds Era, September 1867–December 1868

Christopher B. Bean

in Too Great a Burden to Bear: The Struggle and Failure of the Freedmen's Bureau in Texas

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9780823268757
eISBN:
9780823271771
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Fordham University Press
DOI:
10.5422/fordham/9780823268757.003.0009
Subject:
History, American History: Civil War

The Bureau’s end is in this chapter. Overseeing its demise in Texas was J. J. Reynolds. Reynolds appointed the second most field personnel and the most with military service. The length of tenures ... More


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