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By Parallel Reasoning: The Construction and Evaluation of Analogical Arguments

Paul Bartha

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780195325539
eISBN:
9780199776313
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195325539.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics

This book proposes a theory of analogical arguments, with special focus on analogies in mathematics and science. The core principle of the theory is that a good analogical argument must articulate a ... More


Political Judgment

Alexander Kaufman

in Welfare in the Kantian State

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198294672
eISBN:
9780191599637
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198294670.003.0006
Subject:
Political Science, Political Theory

Kant's argument for ‘man under moral laws’ as the ‘final purpose of creation’, to which all subjective purposiveness in experience must be subordinated, provides the basis for subordinating the ... More


Judges, Expertise, and Analogy

Barbara A. Spellman

in The Psychology of Judicial Decision Making

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780195367584
eISBN:
9780199776917
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195367584.003.0010
Subject:
Psychology, Forensic Psychology

Political scientists have shown that one can anticipate how a judge will decide a case more often than chance, or a reading of the facts, might allow by using various predictors such as party ... More


Supporting Innovation by Promoting Analogical Reasoning

Arthur B. Markman, Kristin L. Wood, Julie S. Linsey, Jeremy T. Murphy, and Jeffrey P. Laux

in Tools for Innovation

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195381634
eISBN:
9780199870264
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195381634.003.0005
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter focuses on the role of the reuse of knowledge to support idea generation. Expert designers often solve problems by taking known solutions and adapting them to a new situation. In many ... More


Reasoning by Analogy

Kent Greenawalt

in Statutory and Common Law Interpretation

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199756148
eISBN:
9780199979523
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199756148.003.0009
Subject:
Law, Philosophy of Law

Traditionally regarded as a central technique of common law argumentation and decision making, reasoning by analogy has been claimed by some to be reducible or definitely subsidiary to other forms of ... More


Form and content: three illustrations

Keith Stenning

in Seeing Reason: Image and Language in Learning to Think

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198507741
eISBN:
9780191687211
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198507741.003.0006
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter presents three cases which serve as vivid illustrations of a cognitive theory about the relationship between form and content. These three cases are as follows: conditional reasoning, ... More


Growing Virtue: The Theory and Science of Developing Compassion from a Mencian Perspective

David B. Wong

in The Philosophical Challenge from China

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
September 2015
ISBN:
9780262028431
eISBN:
9780262323628
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262028431.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, General

In this chapter, I reflect on the implications of Mencius’ conception of compassion for one of the most important problems that defines the Western philosophical tradition: the relationship between ... More


Language Promotes Structural Alignment in the Acquisition of Mentalistic Concepts

Dare A. Baldwin and Megan M. Saylor

in Why Language Matters for Theory of Mind

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780195159912
eISBN:
9780199847150
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195159912.003.0007
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter suggests that language may facilitate children's acquisition of mentalistic concepts by serving as an aid to analogical reasoning and inductive inference. That is, language invites ... More


Nonintentional Similarity Processing

Arthur B. Markman and Dedre Geniner

in The New Unconscious

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780195307696
eISBN:
9780199847488
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195307696.003.0006
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

Similarity is a compelling part of everyday experience. In the visual world, objects that are similar in shape or color may seem to leap to our attention. In conceptual processing, we have an ... More


Search Engines and Free Speech Coverage

Heather M. Whitney and Robert Mark Simpson

in Free Speech in the Digital Age

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
March 2019
ISBN:
9780190883591
eISBN:
9780190883638
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190883591.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This chapter investigates whether search engines and other new modes of online communication should be covered by free speech principles. It criticizes the analogical reasoning that contemporary ... More


Metaphors in Science: “Perspectives,” “tools,” and other meta-metaphors

Andrew S. Reynolds

in The Third Lens: Metaphor and the Creation of Modern Cell Biology

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
January 2019
ISBN:
9780226563121
eISBN:
9780226563435
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226563435.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter explores the questions of how metaphors work and why they are of value to science. Most accounts of metaphor resort themselves to metaphor: the two most popular being the perspective and ... More


Political Rhetoric Meets Political Psychology: The Process of Group Implication

in Dangerous Frames: How Ideas about Race and Gender Shape Public Opinion

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
March 2013
ISBN:
9780226902364
eISBN:
9780226902388
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226902388.003.0002
Subject:
Political Science, American Politics

Both race and gender condition our experience of social life, and they both play huge roles in structuring personal and social relationships, political discourse, public policy, and popular culture. ... More


Anti-Empathy and Dispassionateness in Adjudication

Benjamin C. Zipursky

in Passions and Emotions: NOMOS LIII

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780814760147
eISBN:
9780814763490
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
NYU Press
DOI:
10.18574/nyu/9780814760147.003.0011
Subject:
Political Science, Political Theory

This chapter goes further on West's essay in discussing several of her more important claims: that the paradigm shift in judging has occurred and that it is unfortunate that it has occurred; that ... More


Analogy and Polarity

Michael Jackson

in As Wide as the World Is Wise: Reinventing Philosophical Anthropology

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9780231178280
eISBN:
9780231541985
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231178280.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

Chapter one addresses the ubiquity and scope of analogical reasoning, calling into question the ways in which we conventionally distinguish between modern and premodern thought and, by extension, ... More


The goal and feature memory systems of hominins

Elisabeth A. Murray, Steven P. Wise, and Kim S. Graham

in The Evolution of Memory Systems

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9780199686438
eISBN:
9780191766312
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199686438.003.0009
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience, Development

Sometime after the ape–human lineage diverged from other anthropoids, the feature and goal systems adapted from their specialized role in reducing foraging errors to generalized cognition. Cortical ... More


Memory, imagination, and the evolution of modern language

Simona Ginsburg and Eva Jablonka

in The Social Origins of Language

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
August 2014
ISBN:
9780199665327
eISBN:
9780191779725
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199665327.003.0022
Subject:
Linguistics, Sociolinguistics / Anthropological Linguistics, Psycholinguistics / Neurolinguistics / Cognitive Linguistics

This chapter suggests that the existence of nascent linguistic communication among archaic humans enabled the evolution of a new type of memory-encoding and recall, word-based episodic recall. ... More


Craving for Generality and Small-N Studies: A Wittgensteinian Approach towards the Epistemology of the Particular in Organization and Management Theory

Haridimos Tsoukas

in Philosophical Organization Theory

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
January 2019
ISBN:
9780198794547
eISBN:
9780191836015
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198794547.003.0014
Subject:
Business and Management, Organization Studies

This chapter addresses the question: “How can findings from case studies and ethnographies be generalized?” It advances an epistemological defence of small-N studies in the context of organization ... More


The Metaphor View

Carrie Figdor

in Pieces of Mind: The Proper Domain of Psychological Predicates

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
June 2018
ISBN:
9780198809524
eISBN:
9780191846861
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198809524.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, Philosophy of Science

Chapter 6 presents the view that psychological terms in these unexpected contexts are used metaphorically. It argues that there is no independent, non-question-begging evidence that the terms are ... More


Protecting Human Research Subjects as Human Research Workers

Holly Fernandez Lynch

in Human Subjects Research Regulation: Perspectives on the Future

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
January 2015
ISBN:
9780262027465
eISBN:
9780262320825
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262027465.003.0027
Subject:
Biology, Bioethics

Clinical research involving human subjects has traditionally been treated as a unique endeavor, presenting special risks and demanding special protections. But in several ways, the regulatory scheme ... More


ocal Precedents

Laura Stark

in Behind Closed Doors: IRBs and the Making of Ethical Research

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780226770864
eISBN:
9780226770888
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226770888.003.0003
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter examines the importance of local precedents in the decision making process of institutional review boards (IRBs) based on a survey of the chairman of IRBs in major research universities ... More


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