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How valves work

David O. Clayden

in Alan Turing's Automatic Computing Engine: The Master Codebreaker's Struggle to build the Modern Computer

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780198565932
eISBN:
9780191714016
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198565932.003.0018
Subject:
Mathematics, History of Mathematics

This chapter presents background information on valves. A valve consists of an evacuated glass envelope containing a number of electrodes. These are connected to the outside by wires passing though ... More


Electronics and Control

C. Julian Chen

in Introduction to Scanning Tunneling Microscopy: Second Edition

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199211500
eISBN:
9780191705991
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199211500.003.0011
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter discusses electronics and computer interfaces for STM and AFM. For STM, the detection of the minute tunneling current is of paramount importance. Thus, the basic concepts and analysis of ... More


Linear optical amplifiers*

J. C. Garrison and R. Y. Chiao

in Quantum Optics

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780198508861
eISBN:
9780191708640
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198508861.003.0017
Subject:
Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics

This chapter begins by specializing the general definition of optical amplifiers to a special class of linear amplifiers that includes all those in common use. Amplifiers are divided into the ... More


TRANSISTORS AND AMPLIFIERS

Helmuth Spieler

in Semiconductor Detector Systems

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198527848
eISBN:
9780191713248
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198527848.003.0006
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

This chapter treats transistors, their noise properties, and applications to basic circuits. First, the physics of bipolar transistors is discussed with an emphasis on device parameters important for ... More


Electroacoustic, Electromechanical, and Electronic Instruments

Murray Campbell, Clive Greated, and Arnold Myers

in Musical Instruments: History, Technology, and Performance of Instruments of Western Music

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780198165040
eISBN:
9780191713675
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198165040.003.0013
Subject:
Music, History, Western

This chapter begins with a section on microphones, pickups, amplifiers, special effects units, and loudspeakers. This is followed by an outline of historic developments in electroacoustic ... More


ELECTRONIC NOISE

Helmuth Spieler

in Semiconductor Detector Systems

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198527848
eISBN:
9780191713248
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198527848.003.0003
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

This chapter leads off with explanations of basic electronic noise mechanisms with simple derivations of spectral noise densities for thermal and shot noise, including the origins and characteristics ... More


Narrowing of spectral lines in astrophysical lasers

Vladilen Letokhov and Sveneric Johansson

in Astrophysical Lasers

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780199548279
eISBN:
9780191720512
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199548279.003.0013
Subject:
Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics

This chapter presents a qualitative explanation of the emission spectrum of a saturated amplifier when the amplifying spectral line is inhomogeneously broadened owing to the Doppler effect. Topics ... More


The Cathode Ray Oscilloscope

Alan J. McComas

in Galvani’s Spark: The Story of the Nerve Impulse

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199751754
eISBN:
9780199897094
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199751754.003.0006
Subject:
Neuroscience, History of Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems

Joseph Erlanger becomes the first head of the Physiology Department at Washington University, St Louis, and appoints Herbert Gasser to his staff. Together they attempt to record nerve impulses, after ... More


The Code

Alan J. McComas

in Galvani’s Spark: The Story of the Nerve Impulse

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199751754
eISBN:
9780199897094
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199751754.003.0007
Subject:
Neuroscience, History of Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems

Returning from the war, Adrian continues where he and Lucas had left off. Using the capillary electrometer and Lucas’ mechanical device for correcting distortion, he demonstrates the true form of the ... More


Electronics and Biological Signal Processing

Patrick Magee and Mark Tooley

in The Physics, Clinical Measurement and Equipment of Anaesthetic Practice for the FRCA

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780199595150
eISBN:
9780191918032
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199595150.003.0009
Subject:
Clinical Medicine and Allied Health, Anesthesiology

This chapter continues the discussion of electricity but looks at the effect of connecting components together and briefly looks at the operational amplifier and ... More


Using a “frictionless” pendulum for quantum measurement

I. Siddiqi

in Quantum Machines: Measurement and Control of Engineered Quantum Systems: Lecture Notes of the Les Houches Summer School: Volume 96, July 2011

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
September 2014
ISBN:
9780199681181
eISBN:
9780191761454
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199681181.003.0016
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter presents a quantum-limited amplifier based on parametric amplification and bifurcation of a Josephson junction.


Dynamical bifurcation and amplification in Josephson junction oscillators

R. Vijay, K.W. Murch, and I. Siddiqi

in Fluctuating Nonlinear Oscillators: From Nanomechanics to Quantum Superconducting Circuits

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199691388
eISBN:
9780191742255
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199691388.003.0014
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This chapter presents a theoretical and experimental overview of dynamical bifurcation in driven Josephson junction based nonlinear oscillators. Capture into one of the two driven states can be ... More


Parametric oscillators based on superconducting circuits

C. M. Wilson, T. Duty, and P. Delsing

in Fluctuating Nonlinear Oscillators: From Nanomechanics to Quantum Superconducting Circuits

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199691388
eISBN:
9780191742255
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199691388.003.0015
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

A parametric oscillator is an oscillating system in which one of the parameters, typically either the resonance frequency or damping, can be modulated by an external pump. Parametric oscillations can ... More


Equipment Used in Psychophysiological Recording

Robert M. Stern, William J. Ray, and Karen S. Quigley

in Psychophysiological Recording

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780195113594
eISBN:
9780199846962
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195113594.003.0003
Subject:
Psychology, Health Psychology

This chapter examines the bioelectric signals from the skin, across the junction and finally to the point where it is displayed and analyzed. It describes only those electrodes designed to be placed ... More


Thermometry

Fred V. Brock and Scott J. Richardson

in Meteorological Measurement Systems

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195134513
eISBN:
9780197561584
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195134513.003.0006
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Meteorology and Climatology

Air temperature is one of the most fundamental of all meteorological measurements and directly effects our everyday lives. It has been measured for centuries, using ... More


Subchronic In Vivo Human Microelectrode Recording

Itzhak Fried

in Single Neuron Studies of the Human Brain: Probing Cognition

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
January 2015
ISBN:
9780262027205
eISBN:
9780262323994
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262027205.003.0005
Subject:
Neuroscience, Research and Theory

Progress in neurosurgical procedures and equipment, such as the adaptation of clinical intracerebral electrodes with microelectrodes combined with multi-channel wide bandwidth recording systems, has ... More


How Photoreceptors Optimize the Capture of Visual Information

Peter Sterling

in Principles of Neural Design

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
September 2016
ISBN:
9780262028707
eISBN:
9780262327312
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262028707.003.0008
Subject:
Neuroscience, Research and Theory

Photoreceptors use protein circuits to code efficiently. As light level changes, the circuits dynamically adapt gain and response speed to optimize coding. Mammalian rods specialize to code the ... More


The Software Passes the Test When the User Fails It: Constructing Digital Models of Analog Signal Processors

Jonathan Sterne

in Testing Hearing: The Making of Modern Aurality

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
August 2020
ISBN:
9780197511121
eISBN:
9780197511169
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780197511121.003.0007
Subject:
Music, Psychology of Music, History, Western

Many music technologists have sought to reproduce the sonic signature of analog audio devices—amplifiers, compressors, signal processors, instruments—in the software domain. Assessing the ... More


SQUID amplifiers

J. Clarke, M. H. Devoret, and A. Kamal

in Quantum Machines: Measurement and Control of Engineered Quantum Systems: Lecture Notes of the Les Houches Summer School: Volume 96, July 2011

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
September 2014
ISBN:
9780199681181
eISBN:
9780191761454
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199681181.003.0012
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter treats the concrete example of the microwave SQUID, a practical quantum-limited amplifier. The appeal of the SQUID is that it is sufficiently sophisticated to be used in a variety of ... More


Tomography schemes for characterizing itinerant microwave photon fields

C. Eichler, D. Bozyigit, C. Lang, L. Steffen, J. Fink, and A. Wallraff

in Quantum Machines: Measurement and Control of Engineered Quantum Systems: Lecture Notes of the Les Houches Summer School: Volume 96, July 2011

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
September 2014
ISBN:
9780199681181
eISBN:
9780191761454
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199681181.003.0015
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter illustrates the analysis of propagating microwave signals by splitters and amplifiers and shows that one can recover enough information to reconstruct the Wigner function of a microwave ... More


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