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Dealing with uncertainty in ancestral sequence reconstruction: sampling from the posterior distribution

David D. Pollock and Belinda S.W. Chang

in Ancestral Sequence Reconstruction

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780199299188
eISBN:
9780191714979
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199299188.003.0008
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

The goal of ancestral inference is to have as accurate a picture of ancestral function as possible. Thus, it is worthwhile to try to understand the nature and cause of the sequence and functional ... More


A thermophilic last universal ancestor inferred from its estimated amino acid composition

Dawn J. Brooks and Eric A. Gaucher

in Ancestral Sequence Reconstruction

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780199299188
eISBN:
9780191714979
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199299188.003.0017
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

The last universal ancestor (LUA) represents a relatively accessible theoretical intermediary between extant cellular organisms and early, precellular ‘life’. In a previous study, the ... More


Proteins: Amino Acids and Amines

Thomas S. Bianchi and Elizabeth A. Canuel

in Chemical Biomarkers in Aquatic Ecosystems

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691134147
eISBN:
9781400839100
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691134147.003.0006
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

This chapter discusses proteins, which make up approximately 50% of organic matter and contain about 85% of the organic nitrogen in marine organisms. Peptides and proteins comprise an important ... More


Blast Theory

M. Vidyasagar

in Hidden Markov Processes: Theory and Applications to Biology

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691133157
eISBN:
9781400850518
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691133157.003.0009
Subject:
Mathematics, Probability / Statistics

This chapter deals with BLAST theory. BLAST (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool) is a widely used statistical method for finding similarities between sequences of symbols from finite alphabets. While ... More


Excitatory Amino Acid Transmission in Health and Disease

Robert Balazs, Richard J. Bridges, and Carl W. Cotman

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780195150025
eISBN:
9780199865079
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195150025.001.0001
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems

This book provides a comprehensive, easy-to-read survey of excitatory amino acids and synaptic transmission. It begins with descriptions of the structure, function, and pharmacology of both the ... More


Overview and Perspective

ROBERT BALÁZS, RICHARD J. BRIDGES, and CARL W. COTMAN

in Excitatory Amino Acid Transmission in Health and Disease

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780195150025
eISBN:
9780199865079
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195150025.003.0001
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems

L-Glutamate (Glu) is the most prevalent neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS) and is responsible for mediating the majority of its excitatory signaling. From the start, ... More


Glutamate Transporters

ROBERT BALÁZS, RICHARD J. BRIDGES, and CARL W. COTMAN

in Excitatory Amino Acid Transmission in Health and Disease

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780195150025
eISBN:
9780199865079
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195150025.003.0008
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems

The ability of glutamate (Glu) to contribute to physiological processes ranging from fast excitatory signaling to synaptic plasticity and neuropathology depends on the considerable diversity that ... More


Molecular Organization of Glutamate Receptors in the Postsynaptic Density

ROBERT BALÁZS, RICHARD J. BRIDGES, and CARL W. COTMAN

in Excitatory Amino Acid Transmission in Health and Disease

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780195150025
eISBN:
9780199865079
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195150025.003.0009
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems

A significant advance in the field of excitatory amino acid (EAA) transmission has been the great progress made toward elucidation of the molecular composition and function of the postsynaptic ... More


Excitatory Amino Acid Transmission and Synaptic Plasticity

ROBERT BALÁZS, RICHARD J. BRIDGES, and CARL W. COTMAN

in Excitatory Amino Acid Transmission in Health and Disease

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780195150025
eISBN:
9780199865079
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195150025.003.0011
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems

Activity-dependent, long-lasting synaptic enhancement induced by neuronal stimulation, known as long-term potentiation (LTP), is not unique to the hippocampus; rather, it seems to be a fundamental ... More


Krešimir Krnjevic´

Larry R. Squire

in The History of Neuroscience in Autobiography: Volume 7

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780195396133
eISBN:
9780199918409
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195396133.003.0007
Subject:
Neuroscience, History of Neuroscience

Krešimir Krnjević contributed to the identification of main neurotransmitters in the mammalian brain, notably the previously unsuspected transmitter functions of some amino acids – especially ... More


Individuals

James H. Hunt

in The Evolution of Social Wasps

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780195307979
eISBN:
9780199894192
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195307979.003.0006
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology

This chapter argues that many, perhaps most, of the mysteries of hymenopteran sociality might be resolved if investigators would “follow the protein.” It discusses midgut proteases, free amino acids, ... More


Protein

Felicity Savage King and Ann Burgess

in Nutrition for Developing Countries

Published in print:
1993
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780192622334
eISBN:
9780191723643
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780192622334.003.0003
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter discusses the importance of proteins. Topics covered include amino acids, complete and incomplete proteins, how the body uses protein, and protein needs. Foods containing protein and how ... More


Bioelastomers

C. M. Roland

in Viscoelastic Behavior of Rubbery Materials

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199571574
eISBN:
9780191728976
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199571574.003.0009
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

Proteins are biological macromolecules essential to life, and rubber elasticity is central to the utility of many proteins, especially in animals. The mechanical properties of proteins often govern ... More


Clinical implications of NMDA receptors

PAUL L. HERRLING

in The NMDA Receptor

Published in print:
1995
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780192625021
eISBN:
9780191724701
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780192625021.003.0016
Subject:
Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems

Studies on the physiology and pharmacology of excitatory amino acids led to a new understanding of the high degree of complexity of excitatory transmission in the brain, far removed from the early ... More


Formation of the Building Blocks of Life

Stanley L. Miller and Antonio Lazcano

in Life's Origin: The Beginnings of Biological Evolution

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520233904
eISBN:
9780520928701
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520233904.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter focuses on the role of building-block molecules or monomers on the emergence of life. It describes the prebiotic synthesis of amino acids, sugars, purines, and pyrimidines under ... More


Dielectric Relaxation in Biological Systems: Physical Principles, Methods, and Applications

Valerica Raicu and Yuri Feldman (eds)

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
August 2015
ISBN:
9780199686513
eISBN:
9780191766398
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199686513.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, Soft Matter / Biological Physics

This book covers the theoretical basis, experimental methods, and practical applications of the dielectric properties of biological systems, such as water, electrolytes and polyelectrolytes, ... More


Amino Acids and Peptides

Irina Ermolina and Yuri Feldman

in Dielectric Relaxation in Biological Systems: Physical Principles, Methods, and Applications

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
August 2015
ISBN:
9780199686513
eISBN:
9780191766398
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199686513.003.0009
Subject:
Physics, Soft Matter / Biological Physics

This chapter presents an overview of the dielectric properties of amino acids and oligopeptides in aqueous solutions. Two relaxation processes identified in the aqueous solutions of amino acids are ... More


A Revolution in Peptide Synthesis

Brent R. Stockwell

in The Quest for the Cure: The Science and Stories Behind the Next Generation of Medicines

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231152136
eISBN:
9780231525527
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231152136.003.0010
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health

This chapter reflects on the revolution in peptide synthesis that began in 1949, when Robert Bruce Merrifield developed a method called solid-phase peptide synthesis. Working in the laboratory of ... More


Umami: The secret behind the humble soup stock

Ole G. Mouritsen, Klavs Styrbæk, and Jonas Drotner Mouritsen

in Umami: Unlocking the Secrets of the Fifth Taste

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231168908
eISBN:
9780231537582
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231168908.003.0008
Subject:
Sociology, Science, Technology and Environment

This chapter discusses umami as the secret behind the humble soup stock. By far the majority of foodstuffs, when in their raw form, have little umami. Drawing out the fifth taste from them, ... More


Biological Macromolecules

Lawrence E. Hunter

in The Processes of Life: An Introduction to Molecular Biology

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262013055
eISBN:
9780262255288
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262013055.003.0005
Subject:
Biology, Biochemistry / Molecular Biology

This chapter discusses biological macromolecules, proteins, and nucleic acids. First, it discusses the chemical structure of proteins, the properties of amino acids that make up most proteins, ... More


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