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Proteins: Amino Acids and Amines

Thomas S. Bianchi and Elizabeth A. Canuel

in Chemical Biomarkers in Aquatic Ecosystems

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691134147
eISBN:
9781400839100
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691134147.003.0006
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

This chapter discusses proteins, which make up approximately 50% of organic matter and contain about 85% of the organic nitrogen in marine organisms. Peptides and proteins comprise an important ... More


Exploiting molecular and isotopic signals at the Mesolithic-Neolithic transition

Richard P. Evershed

in Going Over: The Mesolithic-Neolithic Transition in North-West Europe

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780197264140
eISBN:
9780191734489
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
British Academy
DOI:
10.5871/bacad/9780197264140.003.0008
Subject:
Archaeology, Prehistoric Archaeology

The paucity of cultural finds at this key stage in human prehistory increases the need to fully and effectively exploit all the sources of evidence that exist. Organic residues, preserved in ... More


A thermophilic last universal ancestor inferred from its estimated amino acid composition

Dawn J. Brooks and Eric A. Gaucher

in Ancestral Sequence Reconstruction

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780199299188
eISBN:
9780191714979
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199299188.003.0017
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

The last universal ancestor (LUA) represents a relatively accessible theoretical intermediary between extant cellular organisms and early, precellular ‘life’. In a previous study, the ... More


Using ancestral sequence inference to determine the trend of functional divergence after gene duplication

Xun Gu, Ying Zheng, Yong Huang, and Dongping Xu

in Ancestral Sequence Reconstruction

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780199299188
eISBN:
9780191714979
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199299188.003.0011
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter presents a new approach to functional divergence analysis with the combination of ancestral sequence inference, using the family of animal G-protein subunits as an example. Using the ... More


Models of amino acid and codon substitution

ZIHENG YANG

in Computational Molecular Evolution

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780198567028
eISBN:
9780191728280
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198567028.003.0002
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Chapter 1 discussed continuous-time Markov chain models of nucleotide substitution and their application to estimate the distance between two nucleotide sequences. This chapter discusses similar ... More


Dealing with uncertainty in ancestral sequence reconstruction: sampling from the posterior distribution

David D. Pollock and Belinda S.W. Chang

in Ancestral Sequence Reconstruction

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780199299188
eISBN:
9780191714979
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199299188.003.0008
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

The goal of ancestral inference is to have as accurate a picture of ancestral function as possible. Thus, it is worthwhile to try to understand the nature and cause of the sequence and functional ... More


Clinical implications of NMDA receptors

PAUL L. HERRLING

in The NMDA Receptor

Published in print:
1995
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780192625021
eISBN:
9780191724701
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780192625021.003.0016
Subject:
Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems

Studies on the physiology and pharmacology of excitatory amino acids led to a new understanding of the high degree of complexity of excitatory transmission in the brain, far removed from the early ... More


Protein

Felicity Savage King and Ann Burgess

in Nutrition for Developing Countries

Published in print:
1993
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780192622334
eISBN:
9780191723643
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780192622334.003.0003
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter discusses the importance of proteins. Topics covered include amino acids, complete and incomplete proteins, how the body uses protein, and protein needs. Foods containing protein and how ... More


Amino Acids and Peptides

Irina Ermolina and Yuri Feldman

in Dielectric Relaxation in Biological Systems: Physical Principles, Methods, and Applications

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
August 2015
ISBN:
9780199686513
eISBN:
9780191766398
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199686513.003.0009
Subject:
Physics, Soft Matter / Biological Physics

This chapter presents an overview of the dielectric properties of amino acids and oligopeptides in aqueous solutions. Two relaxation processes identified in the aqueous solutions of amino acids are ... More


Probabilistic ancestral sequences based on the Markovian model of evolution: algorithms and applications

Gina M. Cannarozzi, Adrian Schneider, and Gaston H. Gonnet

in Ancestral Sequence Reconstruction

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780199299188
eISBN:
9780191714979
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199299188.003.0005
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

A probabilistic sequence (PS) is a sequence in which each position instead of having a single character (amino acid, nucleotide, or codon), has a vector describing the probability of each symbol ... More


NMDA receptors and their interactions with other excitatory amino acid receptors in synaptic transmission in the mammalian central nervous system

T. E. SALT

in The NMDA Receptor

Published in print:
1995
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780192625021
eISBN:
9780191724701
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780192625021.003.0010
Subject:
Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems

This chapter seeks to review some of the electrophysiological work which has been carried out using excitatory amino acid antagonists. A selection of studies of brain areas has been chosen for review ... More


Formation of the Building Blocks of Life

Stanley L. Miller and Antonio Lazcano

in Life's Origin: The Beginnings of Biological Evolution

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520233904
eISBN:
9780520928701
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520233904.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter focuses on the role of building-block molecules or monomers on the emergence of life. It describes the prebiotic synthesis of amino acids, sugars, purines, and pyrimidines under ... More


Functional Divergence after Gene Duplication: Applications and Others

Xun Gu

in Statistical Theory and Methods for Evolutionary Genomics

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780199213269
eISBN:
9780191594762
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199213269.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Biomathematics / Statistics and Data Analysis / Complexity Studies

As most amino acid substitutions are not related to the functional divergence but only represent the neutral evolution, it becomes crucial how to distinguish statistically between these two ... More


From Building Blocks to the Polymers of Life

James P. Ferris

in Life's Origin: The Beginnings of Biological Evolution

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520233904
eISBN:
9780520928701
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520233904.003.0005
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter offers an origin-of-life scenario that requires the prebiotic synthesis of biopolymers. Scientists suggest that that RNA was the most important biopolymer in early (but not necessarily ... More


Biological Macromolecules

Lawrence E. Hunter

in The Processes of Life: An Introduction to Molecular Biology

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262013055
eISBN:
9780262255288
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262013055.003.0005
Subject:
Biology, Biochemistry / Molecular Biology

This chapter discusses biological macromolecules, proteins, and nucleic acids. First, it discusses the chemical structure of proteins, the properties of amino acids that make up most proteins, ... More


Models of amino acid and codon substitution

Ziheng Yang

in Molecular Evolution: A Statistical Approach

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
August 2014
ISBN:
9780199602605
eISBN:
9780191782251
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199602605.003.0002
Subject:
Biology, Biomathematics / Statistics and Data Analysis / Complexity Studies, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter discusses Markov chain models of amino acid replacement and codon substitution. It then discusses the various methods for estimating the numbers of synonymous and nonsynonymous ... More


Excitatory Amino Acid Transmission in Health and Disease

Robert Balazs, Richard J. Bridges, and Carl W. Cotman

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780195150025
eISBN:
9780199865079
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195150025.001.0001
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems

This book provides a comprehensive, easy-to-read survey of excitatory amino acids and synaptic transmission. It begins with descriptions of the structure, function, and pharmacology of both the ... More


Simple Molecules That Turn You On and Off

Gary L. Wenk

in Your Brain on Food: How Chemicals Control Your Thoughts and Feelings

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
September 2010
ISBN:
9780195388541
eISBN:
9780199863587
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195388541.003.0006
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience, Neuroendocrine and Autonomic

Glutamate is an amino acid that your brain uses as a neurotransmitter and it is almost always is excitatory. GABA is also an amino acid that your brain uses as a neurotransmitter and it is almost ... More


Glutamate Transporters

ROBERT BALÁZS, RICHARD J. BRIDGES, and CARL W. COTMAN

in Excitatory Amino Acid Transmission in Health and Disease

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780195150025
eISBN:
9780199865079
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195150025.003.0008
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems

The ability of glutamate (Glu) to contribute to physiological processes ranging from fast excitatory signaling to synaptic plasticity and neuropathology depends on the considerable diversity that ... More


Individuals

James H. Hunt

in The Evolution of Social Wasps

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780195307979
eISBN:
9780199894192
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195307979.003.0006
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology

This chapter argues that many, perhaps most, of the mysteries of hymenopteran sociality might be resolved if investigators would “follow the protein.” It discusses midgut proteases, free amino acids, ... More


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