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Self-Regulation of Ocean Composition by the Biosphere

Lee R. Kump

in Scientists Debate Gaia: The Next Century

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262194983
eISBN:
9780262283182
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262194983.003.0010
Subject:
Environmental Science, Climate

This chapter explores the host of mechanisms involving biological and physical processes in the context of the evolution of ocean chemistry on geologic time scales. Large fluctuations in the salinity ... More


Recent and Future Changes in Ocean Carbonate Chemistry

James C. Orr

in Ocean Acidification

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780199591091
eISBN:
9780191918001
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199591091.003.0008
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Oceanography and Hydrology

This chapter is about the ongoing human-induced shifts in fundamental ocean carbonate chemistry that are occurring globally and are a growing concern to scientists studying marine organisms. It ... More


Earth: Imprint of Life

Yuk L. Yung and William B. DeMore

in Photochemistry of Planetary Atmospheres

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195105018
eISBN:
9780197560990
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195105018.003.0012
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Atmospheric Sciences

Earth is the largest of the four terrestrial planets, three of which have substantial atmospheres. The astronomical and orbital parameters are summarized in table 9.1. Our planet has an obliquity ... More


Liquids

I. David Brown

in The Chemical Bond in Inorganic Chemistry

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
November 2016
ISBN:
9780198742951
eISBN:
9780191802935
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198742951.003.0006
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography: Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

The bond valence model applies to the chemistry of liquids as well as solids. Although the bond valence model applies to all liquids (Section 6.6), the properties of aqueous solutions are ... More


Soil Salinity

Garrison Sposito

in The Chemistry of Soils

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780190630881
eISBN:
9780197559710
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190630881.003.0016
Subject:
Chemistry, Environmental Chemistry

A soil is salineif the electrical conductivity of its soil solution as obtained by extraction from a water-saturated soil paste (ECe) exceeds 4 dS m-1. (The measurement of electrical conductivity ... More


Climate Forcing at the Arctic LTER Site

John E. Hobbie and Neil Bettez

in Climate Variability and Ecosystem Response in Long-Term Ecological Research Sites

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195150599
eISBN:
9780197561881
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195150599.003.0011
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Meteorology and Climatology

The Arctic LTER site is located at 68º38'N and 149º43'W, at an elevation of 760 m in the northern foothills of the Brooks Range, Alaska. The location, 208 km south of Prudhoe Bay, was chosen for ... More


Geography, Learning, and Convergence

Andrew S. Cohen

in Manufacturing Culture: The Institutional Geography of Industrial Practice

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780198233824
eISBN:
9780191916496
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198233824.003.0014
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Urban Geography

Biological processes form the basis for a rich source of information for paleolimnologists. Populations of organisms are sensitive to variations in their external environment, and this sensitivity ... More


The Biological Environment of Lakes

Andrew S. Cohen

in Paleolimnology: The History and Evolution of Lake Systems

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195133530
eISBN:
9780197561577
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195133530.003.0009
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Geology and the Lithosphere

Biological processes form the basis for a rich source of information for paleolimnologists. Populations of organisms are sensitive to variations in their external environment, and this sensitivity ... More


Facies Models at the Lake Basin Scale

Andrew S. Cohen

in Paleolimnology: The History and Evolution of Lake Systems

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195133530
eISBN:
9780197561577
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195133530.003.0012
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Geology and the Lithosphere

Understanding the historical evolution of sedimentation in a lake requires not only a grounding in facies interpretation but also an understanding of the larger-scale, lakewide linkages between ... More


Geochemical Archives in Lake Deposits

Andrew S. Cohen

in Paleolimnology: The History and Evolution of Lake Systems

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195133530
eISBN:
9780197561577
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195133530.003.0013
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Geology and the Lithosphere

As we saw in chapter 4, the isotopic, elemental, or molecular constituents of a lake and its sediments reflect both external chemical inputs and the lake’s internal biogeochemical cycles. Lake ... More


Paleoecological Archives in Lake Deposits I: Problems and Methods

Andrew S. Cohen

in Paleolimnology: The History and Evolution of Lake Systems

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195133530
eISBN:
9780197561577
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195133530.003.0014
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Geology and the Lithosphere

Fossils provide some of the most detailed sources of information for environmental reconstruction available to the paleolimnologist. The use of lacustrine fossils to infer paleoenvironmental ... More


Organic Matter and Nutrients in the Mainstem Amazon River

Alan H. Devol and John I. Hedges

in The Biogeochemistry of the Amazon Basin

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195114317
eISBN:
9780197561140
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195114317.003.0018
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Geochemistry

The Amazon, like smaller rivers, is the daughter of its drainage basin. Local climate and interactions over time with the template of topography, geology, and vegetation determine the size and flow ... More


Carbon Cycle

Thomas S. Bianchi

in Biogeochemistry of Estuaries

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195160826
eISBN:
9780197562048
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195160826.003.0023
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Geochemistry

Carbon is the key element of life on Earth and exists in more than a million compounds (Holmén, 2000; Berner, 2004). The unique covalent long-chained and aromatic carbon compounds form the basis of ... More


Acidification: Background and History

Jean-Pierre Gattuso and Lina Hansson

in Ocean Acidification

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780199591091
eISBN:
9780191918001
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199591091.003.0006
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Oceanography and Hydrology

The ocean and the atmosphere exchange massive amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2). The pre-industrial influx from the ocean to the atmosphere was 70.6 Gt C yr –1 , while the flux in the opposite ... More


Past Changes in Ocean Carbonate Chemistry

Richard E. Zeebe and Andy Ridgwell

in Ocean Acidification

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780199591091
eISBN:
9780191918001
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199591091.003.0007
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Oceanography and Hydrology

Over the period from 1750 to 2000, the oceans have absorbed about one-third of the carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted by humans. As the CO2 dissolves in seawater, the oceans become more acidic and ... More


Skeletons and Ocean Chemistry: The Long View

Andrew H. Knoll and Woodward W. Fischer

in Ocean Acidification

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780199591091
eISBN:
9780191918001
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199591091.003.0009
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Oceanography and Hydrology

In present-day seas, animals, algae, and protozoa are threatened by ocean acidification, amplified in many regions by seawater warming and hypoxia (Doney et al . 2009 ). Many species may be ... More


Chemical Properties of Soils for Growing Plants

Robert F. Keefer

in Handbook of Soils for Landscape Architects

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195121025
eISBN:
9780197561270
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195121025.003.0011
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Soil Science

Soil reaction is the amount of acids (acidity) or bases (alkalinity) present in a soil and is indicated by a term called “pH”. By definition, pH is the logarithm of the reciprocal of the hydrogen ... More


Soil Chemistry

S. R. Juo, Anthony and Kathrin Franzluebbers

in Tropical Soils: Properties and Management for Sustainable Agriculture

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195115987
eISBN:
9780197561157
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195115987.003.0006
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Soil Science

Soil chemistry deals with the chemical properties and reactions of soils. It is essentially the application of electrochemistry and colloid chemistry to soil systems. Major topics include surface ... More


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