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Glacial habitats in polar regions

David N. Thomas, G.E. (Tony) Fogg, Peter Convey, Christian H. Fritsen, Josep-Maria Gili, Rolf Gradinger, Johanna Laybourn-Parry, Keith Reid, and David W.H. Walton

in The Biology of Polar Regions

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780199298112
eISBN:
9780191711640
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199298112.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

This chapter discusses microbial presence and diversity in glacial ice habitats. Topics covered include life in the interior of polar ice sheets and glaciers, life at the margin, and the snow alga ... More


Kelp Forest Food Webs in the Aleutian Archipelago

James A. Estes

in Food Webs and the Dynamics of Marine Reefs

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780195319958
eISBN:
9780199869596
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195319958.003.0002
Subject:
Biology, Aquatic Biology

The chapter summarizes the current understanding of the kelp forest ecosystems of Alaska by focusing on the key role that otters, killer whales, and man have played in the ecological organization of ... More


Trophic Interactions in Subtidal Rocky Reefs on the West Coast of South Africa

George M. Branch

in Food Webs and the Dynamics of Marine Reefs

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780195319958
eISBN:
9780199869596
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195319958.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Aquatic Biology

The chapter summarizes the ecology of the subtidal reefs of South Africa. Discussions include the role of wind, productivity, and oceanographic conditions, the important role of currents and the ... More


Lipids: Alkenones, Polar Lipids, and Ether Lipids

Thomas S. Bianchi and Elizabeth A. Canuel

in Chemical Biomarkers in Aquatic Ecosystems

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691134147
eISBN:
9781400839100
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691134147.003.0011
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

This chapter focuses on several classes of polar lipids, including alkenones, which are di-, tri-, and tetra-unsaturated long-chain ketones. These compounds are produced by a restricted number of ... More


The mangrove community: marine components

Peter Hogarth

in The Biology of Mangroves and Seagrasses

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198568704
eISBN:
9780191717536
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198568704.003.0006
Subject:
Biology, Aquatic Biology

This chapter discusses the marine components of mangroves. Mangroves provide marine organisms with both a physical environment and nutrients. Pneumatophores and prop roots greatly expand the surface ... More


Coral Reefs – Biodiverse and Productive Tropical Ecosystems

Charles R. C. Sheppard, Simon K. Davy, and Graham M. Pilling

in The Biology of Coral Reefs

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198566359
eISBN:
9780191713934
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198566359.003.0001
Subject:
Biology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology, Aquatic Biology

Coral reefs are the ocean's richest ecosystem in terms of biodiversity and productivity. They are restricted to tropical waters where conditions of salinity, temperature and sedimentation are ... More


Symbiotic Interactions

Charles R. C. Sheppard, Simon K. Davy, and Graham M. Pilling

in The Biology of Coral Reefs

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198566359
eISBN:
9780191713934
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198566359.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology, Aquatic Biology

Symbiosis, where different species live together for prolonged periods, is ubiquitous and extremely important in coral reefs. The most important symbiosis is between corals and the microalgae ... More


Primary producers: plant production and its availability

Donald S. McLusky and Michael Elliott

in The Estuarine Ecosystem: Ecology, Threats and Management

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780198525080
eISBN:
9780191728198
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198525080.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

Within the estuarine ecosystem there may be several sources of plant production, including salt marsh plants, eel grass, or sea weeds. Growing directly on the surface of the mudflats may be ... More


Diversity of life in peatlands

Håkan Rydin and John K. Jeglum

in The Biology of Peatlands

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780198528722
eISBN:
9780191728211
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198528722.003.0002
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

Peatlands host a wide diversity of species and life forms. The plants are the most obvious, since they provide the structural foundation and are the source of organic compounds derived from ... More


Reflection: Isabella Kauakea Yau Yung Aiona Abbott

Puakea Nogelmeier

in I Ulu I Ke Kumu: The Hawaiinuiakea Monograph

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
November 2016
ISBN:
9780984566600
eISBN:
9780824870324
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Hawai'i Press
DOI:
10.21313/hawaii/9780984566600.003.0008
Subject:
Society and Culture, Pacific Studies

This chapter presents the reflections of Isabella Kauakea Yau Yung Aiona Abbott on her academic career. Isabella Abbott completed her doctorate in botany at the University of California at Berkeley ... More


Nature of Soils and Soil Development

Earl B. Alexander, Roger G. Coleman, Todd Keeler-Wolfe, and Susan P. Harrison

in Serpentine Geoecology of Western North America: Geology, Soils, and Vegetation

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195165081
eISBN:
9780197562123
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195165081.003.0009
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Soil Science

We walk on soils frequently, but we seldom observe them. Soils are massive, even though they are porous. Soil 1m (40 inches) deep over an area of 1 hectare ... More


Beyond Sustainability for the Production of Fuel, Food, and Feed

Dalia Nakhla and Salah M. El-Haggar

in Sustainability and Innovation

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9789774166471
eISBN:
9781617976803
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
American University in Cairo Press
DOI:
10.5743/cairo/9789774166471.003.0009
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

“Beyond sustainability” is a concept that encourages creativity and innovation in order to generate new resources from wastes, effluents, and emissions. It views pollution as an opportunity rather ... More


The Sun Always Rises

Andrew Ross

in Bird on Fire: Lessons from the World's Least Sustainable City

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780199828265
eISBN:
9780197563205
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199828265.003.0011
Subject:
Environmental Science, Environmental Sustainability

Nothing has driven the growth of metro Phoenix more than the sun’s rays. For most of its residents and visitors, the chief reason for coming to the region was its 334 ... More


The Greening of the Land

Frank H. T. Rhodes

in Origins: The Search for Our Prehistoric Past

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9781501702440
eISBN:
9781501706233
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Cornell University Press
DOI:
10.7591/cornell/9781501702440.003.0007
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Cultural and Historical Geography

This chapter points out the impact of plant life on both the evolution of animals and the development of the planet. In particular, the chapter focuses on land plants and their development from ... More


Environmental Scaling of Body Size in Island Populations of Galápagos Marine Iguanas

Martin Wikelski and Chris Carbone

in Iguanas: Biology and Conservation

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520238541
eISBN:
9780520930117
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520238541.003.0013
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology

This chapter examines the environmental determinants of body size in Galápagos marine iguanas. It presents a mechanistic model to describe the feeding performance of male iguanas in Santa Fé and ... More


Parts of a Soil (Soil Constituents) Air, Water, Minerals, and Organic Matter

Robert F. Keefer

in Handbook of Soils for Landscape Architects

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195121025
eISBN:
9780197561270
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195121025.003.0005
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Soil Science

Soils physically consist of soil solids and pore space. Soil solids are composed of (a) mineral matter such as sand (coarse particles), silt (fine particles), and clay (very fine particles), and ... More


Life in a Copper Province

Eleanora I. Robbins and Michalann Harthill

in Geology and Health: Closing the Gap

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195162042
eISBN:
9780197562062
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195162042.003.0024
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Geochemistry

The North American Lake Superior region contains a world-class copper province nearly 300,000 km² in area. A dozen major copper deposits and hundreds of ... More


Leaves, genes, and greenhouse gases

David Beerling

in The Emerald Planet: How plants changed Earth's history

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780192806024
eISBN:
9780191916427
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780192806024.003.0009
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Environmental Geography

The Galileo spacecraft, named after the Italian astronomer Galileo Galilei (1564–1642), who launched modern astronomy with his observations of the heavens in 1610, ... More


Introduction

Earl B. Alexander, Roger G. Coleman, Todd Keeler-Wolfe, and Susan P. Harrison

in Serpentine Geoecology of Western North America: Geology, Soils, and Vegetation

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195165081
eISBN:
9780197562123
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195165081.003.0003
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Soil Science

Ultramafic, or colloquially “serpentine,” rocks and soils have dramatic effects on the vegetation that grows on them. Many plants cannot grow in serpentine soils, ... More


Heterochrony

Mary Jane West-Eberhard

in Developmental Plasticity and Evolution

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195122343
eISBN:
9780197561300
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195122343.003.0019
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Palaeontology: Earth Sciences

Heterochrony is evolutionary change in the timing of expression of a phenotype trait, that transfers expression of the trait from one life stage or ... More


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