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Kenya: Counterterrorism in Kenya: Security aid, impunity and Muslim alienation

Jeremy Prestholdt

in Non-Western responses to terrorism

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9781526105813
eISBN:
9781526135988
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Manchester University Press
DOI:
10.7228/manchester/9781526105813.003.0016
Subject:
Political Science, Security Studies

Since the 1998 bombing of the US Embassy in Nairobi, the Government of Kenya’s response to terrorism has been multifaceted. Government efforts have primarily relied on civil authorities and the ... More


Al-Qaida and Al-Shabaab: A Resilient Alliance

Tricia Bacon and Daisy Muibu

in War and Peace in Somalia: National Grievances, Local Conflict and Al-Shabaab

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
June 2019
ISBN:
9780190947910
eISBN:
9780190055929
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190947910.003.0035
Subject:
Political Science, Conflict Politics and Policy

This chapter focuses on the alliance between Al-Qaida and Al-Shabaab. Although cooperation between the groups is limited and irregular, the relationship has proven durable despite the loss of leaders ... More


Foreign Fighter Influence in Al-Shabaab: Limitations and Future Prospects

Tricia Bacon and Daisy Muibu

in War and Peace in Somalia: National Grievances, Local Conflict and Al-Shabaab

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
June 2019
ISBN:
9780190947910
eISBN:
9780190055929
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190947910.003.0037
Subject:
Political Science, Conflict Politics and Policy

This chapter examines foreign fighter influence in Al-Shabaab. The role and influence of foreign fighters in Al-Shabaab have varied over time. In the early years, there were numerous reports ... More


Community Perspectives Towards Al-Shabaab: Sources of Support and the Potential for Negotiations

Joanne Crouch and Abdi Ali

in War and Peace in Somalia: National Grievances, Local Conflict and Al-Shabaab

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
June 2019
ISBN:
9780190947910
eISBN:
9780190055929
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190947910.003.0040
Subject:
Political Science, Conflict Politics and Policy

This chapter discusses the results of key interviews with Somalis regarding their perceptions about Al-Shabaab. Respondents expressed concerns about Al-Shabaab's indiscriminate and excessive use of ... More


Surge: January 2014 to May 2017

Paul D. Williams

in Fighting for Peace in Somalia: A History and Analysis of the African Union Mission (AMISOM), 2007-2017

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
July 2018
ISBN:
9780198724544
eISBN:
9780191792182
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198724544.003.0008
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

This chapter starts by analysing why Ethiopia decided to integrate some of its troops into AMISOM in January 2014. It then summarizes the four major expansion and consolidation operations that AMISOM ... More


Al-Shabaab’s Youth Recruitment Project

Mohamed Haji Abdullahi “Ingiriis”

in War and Peace in Somalia: National Grievances, Local Conflict and Al-Shabaab

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
June 2019
ISBN:
9780190947910
eISBN:
9780190055929
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190947910.003.0030
Subject:
Political Science, Conflict Politics and Policy

This chapter examines the extent to which the push and pull factors of youth recruitment in Al-Shabaab have reinforced radicalization in Somalia. Whereas the push factors are facilitated by negative ... More


Can Al-Shabaab Deliver?: Reality and Rhetoric in the Struggle for Power

Richard Barrett

in War and Peace in Somalia: National Grievances, Local Conflict and Al-Shabaab

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
June 2019
ISBN:
9780190947910
eISBN:
9780190055929
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190947910.003.0032
Subject:
Political Science, Conflict Politics and Policy

This chapter considers the origins of Al-Shabaab and the gap between its rhetoric and practice. Despite its globalist agenda, reinforced by its allegiance to Al-Qaida, Al-Shabaab is at its core an ... More


Al-Shabaab as a Transnational Security Threat

Sahan Africa

in War and Peace in Somalia: National Grievances, Local Conflict and Al-Shabaab

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
June 2019
ISBN:
9780190947910
eISBN:
9780190055929
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190947910.003.0036
Subject:
Political Science, Conflict Politics and Policy

This chapter considers the threat posed by Al-Shabaab both in Somalia and to the Horn of Africa. Al-Shabaab is a composite insurgency, which has exploited local grievances by aligning itself with ... More


Stalemate: January 2009 to August 2010

Paul D. Williams

in Fighting for Peace in Somalia: A History and Analysis of the African Union Mission (AMISOM), 2007-2017

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
July 2018
ISBN:
9780198724544
eISBN:
9780191792182
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198724544.003.0004
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

This chapter analyses AMISOM’s challenges in Mogadishu after Ethiopia’s withdrawal. The first section summarizes conflict dynamics in Mogadishu while the second examines the state of AMISOM’s main ... More


Offensive: September 2010 to October 2011

Paul D. Williams

in Fighting for Peace in Somalia: A History and Analysis of the African Union Mission (AMISOM), 2007-2017

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
July 2018
ISBN:
9780198724544
eISBN:
9780191792182
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198724544.003.0005
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

This chapter analyses the battle for Mogadishu and how AMISOM not only pushed al-Shabaab forces out of the city but also turned significant pockets of international opinion from viewing the mission ... More


Strategic Communications

Paul D. Williams

in Fighting for Peace in Somalia: A History and Analysis of the African Union Mission (AMISOM), 2007-2017

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
July 2018
ISBN:
9780198724544
eISBN:
9780191792182
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198724544.003.0012
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

When AMISOM initially deployed, the AU had almost zero strategic communications capabilities and so the mission began without the ability to wage an effective media campaign. This chapter therefore ... More


Motivations and Drivers of Al-Shabaab

Roland Marchal

in War and Peace in Somalia: National Grievances, Local Conflict and Al-Shabaab

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
June 2019
ISBN:
9780190947910
eISBN:
9780190055929
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190947910.003.0027
Subject:
Political Science, Conflict Politics and Policy

This chapter considers the motivations and drivers of Al-Shabaab. Al-Shabaab has built itself on a clear agenda: ridding Somalia of foreign forces, portrayed as Christians, and implementing the ... More


Why They Fight and why They Quit: An Analysis of Interviews with Current and Former Al-Shabaab Fighters

Richard Barrett

in War and Peace in Somalia: National Grievances, Local Conflict and Al-Shabaab

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
June 2019
ISBN:
9780190947910
eISBN:
9780190055929
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190947910.003.0028
Subject:
Political Science, Conflict Politics and Policy

This chapter considers the issue of why fighters join Al-Shabaab and why they quit, based on an analysis of over 100 interviews with individuals currently and previously in the group. It concludes ... More


Rivals in Governance: Civil Activities of Al-Shabaab

Roland Marchal

in War and Peace in Somalia: National Grievances, Local Conflict and Al-Shabaab

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
June 2019
ISBN:
9780190947910
eISBN:
9780190055929
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190947910.003.0031
Subject:
Political Science, Conflict Politics and Policy

This chapter discusses what Al-Shabaab delivers in the areas it controls. It focuses on three main sectors: preaching and education, organizing civil society, and justice. Al-Shabaab uses religion to ... More


Travelling for an Idea: The Appeal of Al-Shabaab to Diaspora in the West

Johusa Meservey

in War and Peace in Somalia: National Grievances, Local Conflict and Al-Shabaab

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
June 2019
ISBN:
9780190947910
eISBN:
9780190055929
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190947910.003.0038
Subject:
Political Science, Conflict Politics and Policy

This chapter considers Al-Shabaab's Western foreign fighters. Members of the Somali diaspora in the West were the major source of Al-Shabaab's Western foreign fighters. Previously, a considerable ... More


Negotiations with Al-Shabaab: Lessons Learned and Future Prospects

Harmonie Toros and Stephen Harley

in War and Peace in Somalia: National Grievances, Local Conflict and Al-Shabaab

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
June 2019
ISBN:
9780190947910
eISBN:
9780190055929
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190947910.003.0039
Subject:
Political Science, Conflict Politics and Policy

This chapter examines the potential for talks with Al-Shabaab, identifies potential facilitators and spoilers, and highlights lessons to be learned from past dialogues with Al-Shabaab. Three main ... More


Expansion: October 2011 to September 2012

Paul D. Williams

in Fighting for Peace in Somalia: A History and Analysis of the African Union Mission (AMISOM), 2007-2017

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
July 2018
ISBN:
9780198724544
eISBN:
9780191792182
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198724544.003.0006
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

This chapter starts by analysing Kenya’s decision to launch Operation Linda Nchi into Somalia in October 2011 and why it subsequently integrated nearly 4,500 troops into AMISOM in 2012. The second ... More


Consolidation: September 2012 to December 2013

Paul D. Williams

in Fighting for Peace in Somalia: A History and Analysis of the African Union Mission (AMISOM), 2007-2017

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
July 2018
ISBN:
9780198724544
eISBN:
9780191792182
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198724544.003.0007
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

After explaining the creation of a new FGS in August and September 2012, this chapter analyses how AMISOM consolidated its positions across south-central Somalia. It then provides a summary of the ... More


Al-Shabaab Attitudes Towards Negotiations

Anneli Botha and Mahdi Abdile

in War and Peace in Somalia: National Grievances, Local Conflict and Al-Shabaab

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
June 2019
ISBN:
9780190947910
eISBN:
9780190055929
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190947910.003.0041
Subject:
Political Science, Conflict Politics and Policy

Finding a lasting peaceful solution to the conflict in Somalia has eluded both national and international actors since the fall of the Siad Barre regime. This chapter assesses the possibilities for ... More


Somalia and External Intervention in the Greater Horn of Africa: 1970–2010

Daniel Maxwell and Nisar Majid

in Famine in Somalia: Competing Imperatives, Collective Failures, 2011–12

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
September 2016
ISBN:
9780190499389
eISBN:
9780190638559
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190499389.003.0003
Subject:
Political Science, Conflict Politics and Policy

This chapter puts the famine of 2011 in the context of Somalia’s recent history, the political economy of humanitarian aid in the Greater Horn of Africa, and Somalia’s protracted crisis of ... More


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