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Reasons and the Humean Theory

Mark Schroeder

in Slaves of the Passions

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780199299508
eISBN:
9780191714917
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199299508.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Political Philosophy

This chapter introduces the Humean Theory of Reasons by reference to the case of Ronnie, who likes to dance, and Bradley, who can't stand dancing. Given this difference in their psychologies, Ronnie ... More


Agent-Relative Principles

Jeffrey Brand-Ballard

in Limits of Legality: The Ethics of Lawless Judging

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
September 2010
ISBN:
9780195342291
eISBN:
9780199867011
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195342291.003.0012
Subject:
Philosophy, Political Philosophy

This chapter examines four agent-relative principles that, if true, entail that systemic effects do not give Group O (the group of judges with correct moral judgment) any reason to adhere to the law ... More


Indexicality, Universalizability, and the Range of Reasons

John Skorupski

in The Domain of Reasons

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780199587636
eISBN:
9780191595394
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199587636.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter examines the distinction between neutral and relative reasons and considers the universalisability and range of reasons. Reasons are universal: they apply to all actors. But over what ... More


Complicity and Causality

John Gardner

in Offences and Defences: Selected Essays in the Philosophy of Criminal Law

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780199239351
eISBN:
9780191716959
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199239351.003.0003
Subject:
Law, Philosophy of Law, Criminal Law and Criminology

This chapter continues the argument according to which the definitions of crimes may defencibly differ according to the different causal contributions made by offenders. It concentrates on the ... More


Caring and Personal and Impersonal Value

Jeffrey Blustein

in Care and Commitment: Taking the Personal Point of View

Published in print:
1992
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195067996
eISBN:
9780199852895
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195067996.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This chapter presents an argument that caring-about typically (but not always) creates personal value for the one who cares, and that personal value can support a sense of the meaningfulness of lives ... More


Practical Dilemmas

Derek Parfit

in Reasons and Persons

Published in print:
1986
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198249085
eISBN:
9780191598173
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/019824908X.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, General

Explains why C cannot be directly self‐defeating. Theories are agent‐relative if they give different agents different aims. Two such theories are S and Common Sense Morality, or M. It is often true ... More


Constraining Rights and the Value of Status

F. M. Kamm

in Morality, Mortality Volume II: Rights, Duties, and Status

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195144024
eISBN:
9780199870998
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195144023.003.0011
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

Examine the question of whether it is morally permissible to treat people in ways ruled out by the Principle of Permissible Harm (PPH; this was introduced in Ch. 7 and provides an account of certain ... More


Is It Worse if More Die: Agent Relative or Non‐Relative Views?

F. M. Kamm

in Morality, Mortality Volume I: Death and Whom to Save From It

Published in print:
1998
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195119114
eISBN:
9780199872244
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195119118.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

Considers arguments for the following radical claim: the fact that we could save a greater number of lives is not a reason to save some people rather than others when we cannot save everyone. Against ... More


A Derivation of Consequentialism

David Cummiskey

in Kantian Consequentialism

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195094534
eISBN:
9780199833146
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195094530.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This chapter argues that consequentialism provides a natural and straightforward interpretation of the formula of the end‐in‐itself. We treat rational nature as an end, and not a mere means, by ... More


One Reason Dichotomy Less?

Toni Rønnow-Rasmussen

in Personal Value

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199603787
eISBN:
9780191729294
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199603787.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

It would come in handy if we could understand the distinction between personal and impersonal values in terms of the much‐discussed agent‐relative/neutral dichotomy. This chapter examines the latter ... More


Consequentialism: New Directions, New Problems

Christian Seidel (ed.)

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
December 2018
ISBN:
9780190270117
eISBN:
9780190270131
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190270117.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy, General

Consequentialism is a focal point of discussion and a driving force behind developments in moral philosophy. Recently, the debate has shifted in focus and in style: by seeking to consequentialize ... More


The Search for Universal Principles in Ethics and Politics

Douglas J. Den Uyl and Douglas B. Rasmussen

in The Perfectionist Turn: From Metanorms to Metaethics

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9781474413343
eISBN:
9781474422406
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press
DOI:
10.3366/edinburgh/9781474413343.003.0003
Subject:
Political Science, Political Theory

This chapter discusses the difficulties and limitations in finding universal ethical and political principles. Its central concern is to point out the underlying problems in Kantian-inspired ethical ... More


Tethering I

Douglas J. Den Uyl and Douglas B. Rasmussen

in The Perfectionist Turn: From Metanorms to Metaethics

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9781474413343
eISBN:
9781474422406
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press
DOI:
10.3366/edinburgh/9781474413343.003.0004
Subject:
Political Science, Political Theory

This chapter starts by considering what the authors call the “Nussbaum Problem”—that is, “Why do we need a comprehensive approach to politics (and indeed ethics)?” Here the views of Martha Nussbaum, ... More


Grounding Obligations

Albert Weale

in Modern Social Contract Theory

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
July 2020
ISBN:
9780198853541
eISBN:
9780191887963
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198853541.003.0014
Subject:
Political Science, Political Theory

Grice has been an unjustly neglected thinker. His version of contract theory offers a distinctive approach combining deliberative rationality with a non-moralized conception of motivation. He is ... More


Contractual Rationalities

Albert Weale

in Modern Social Contract Theory

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
July 2020
ISBN:
9780198853541
eISBN:
9780191887963
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198853541.003.0004
Subject:
Political Science, Political Theory

Modern contract theories differ from one another along one principal dimension, namely the account of practical rationality that they employ. One class of theories draws upon modern expected utility ... More


The Ideal of Orthonomous Action, or the How and Why of Buck-Passing

Michael Smith

in Thinking About Reasons: Themes from the Philosophy of Jonathan Dancy

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780199604678
eISBN:
9780191759062
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199604678.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Moral Philosophy

This paper argues that ideal actions are instances of ‘orthonomous’ actions: actions motivated by an intention an agent forms as a result of exercising his capacity to recognize and respond to such ... More


Agent Centeredness, Agent Neutrality, Disagreement, and Truth Conduciveness

Michael DePaul

in Seemings and Justification: New Essays on Dogmatism and Phenomenal Conservatism

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780199899494
eISBN:
9780199367719
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199899494.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, General

There is prima facie reason for thinking that recognition of the epistemic significance of seemings would have an impact on the epistemology of disagreement. More specifically, it would seem that ... More


Reasons and Agent-Neutrality

Mark Schroeder

in Explaining the Reasons We Share: Explanation and Expression in Ethics, Volume 1

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
June 2014
ISBN:
9780198713807
eISBN:
9780191782190
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198713807.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This chapter takes up the question of the relationship between agent relational and agent neutral ascriptions of reasons—those which mention agents, and those which do not. Three interesting and ... More


The Humean Theory of Reasons

Mark Schroeder

in Explaining the Reasons We Share: Explanation and Expression in Ethics, Volume 1

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
June 2014
ISBN:
9780198713807
eISBN:
9780191782190
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198713807.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This chapter offers a methodological argument for the Humean Theory of Reasons, according to which something is a reason for someone to do something only if it is related to her desires in the right ... More


The Scope of Instrumental Reason

Mark Schroeder

in Explaining the Reasons We Share: Explanation and Expression in Ethics, Volume 1

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
June 2014
ISBN:
9780198713807
eISBN:
9780191782190
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198713807.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This chapter explores a number of topics in moral philosophy for which both wide- and narrow-scope accounts are possible, including instrumental rationality, non-akrasia, epistemic closure, and ... More


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