*Maureen T. Carroll and Steven T. Dougherty*

- Published in print:
- 2015
- Published Online:
- October 2017
- ISBN:
- 9780691164038
- eISBN:
- 9781400881338
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Princeton University Press
- DOI:
- 10.23943/princeton/9780691164038.003.0013
- Subject:
- Mathematics, History of Mathematics

This chapter introduces a new game of tic-tac-toe that fits squarely within the body of work inspired by mathematician Leonhard Euler's findings on the so-called “Graeco-Latin squares” and the ...
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This chapter introduces a new game of tic-tac-toe that fits squarely within the body of work inspired by mathematician Leonhard Euler's findings on the so-called “Graeco-Latin squares” and the surprisingly interesting problem of arranging thirty-six officers of six different ranks and regiments. In his 1782 paper on the subject, Euler begins with the thirty-six-officer problem and ends with a conjecture about the possible sizes of Graeco-Latin squares. The chapter first explains the rules for a game based on Euler's work, and then analyzes it from a game-theoretic perspective to determine winning and drawing strategies. Along the way, the chapter explains Euler's connection to the story.Less

This chapter introduces a new game of tic-tac-toe that fits squarely within the body of work inspired by mathematician Leonhard Euler's findings on the so-called “Graeco-Latin squares” and the surprisingly interesting problem of arranging thirty-six officers of six different ranks and regiments. In his 1782 paper on the subject, Euler begins with the thirty-six-officer problem and ends with a conjecture about the possible sizes of Graeco-Latin squares. The chapter first explains the rules for a game based on Euler's work, and then analyzes it from a game-theoretic perspective to determine winning and drawing strategies. Along the way, the chapter explains Euler's connection to the story.

*Jennifer Beineke and Jason Rosenhouse (eds)*

- Published in print:
- 2015
- Published Online:
- October 2017
- ISBN:
- 9780691164038
- eISBN:
- 9781400881338
- Item type:
- book

- Publisher:
- Princeton University Press
- DOI:
- 10.23943/princeton/9780691164038.001.0001
- Subject:
- Mathematics, History of Mathematics

The history of mathematics is filled with major breakthroughs resulting from solutions to recreational problems. Problems of interest to gamblers led to the modern theory of probability, for example, ...
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The history of mathematics is filled with major breakthroughs resulting from solutions to recreational problems. Problems of interest to gamblers led to the modern theory of probability, for example, and surreal numbers were inspired by the game of Go. Yet even with such groundbreaking findings and a wealth of popular-level books exploring puzzles and brainteasers, research in recreational mathematics has often been neglected. This book brings together authors from a variety of specialties to present fascinating problems and solutions in recreational mathematics. The chapters show how sophisticated mathematics can help construct mazes that look like famous people, how the analysis of crossword puzzles has much in common with understanding epidemics, and how the theory of electrical circuits is useful in understanding the classic Towers of Hanoi puzzle. The card game SET® is related to the theory of error-correcting codes, and simple tic-tac-toe takes on a new life when played on an affine plane. Inspirations for the book's wealth of problems include board games, card tricks, fake coins, flexagons, pencil puzzles, poker, and so much more. Looking at a plethora of eclectic games and puzzles, this book is sure to entertain, challenge, and inspire academic mathematicians and avid math enthusiasts alike.Less

The history of mathematics is filled with major breakthroughs resulting from solutions to recreational problems. Problems of interest to gamblers led to the modern theory of probability, for example, and surreal numbers were inspired by the game of Go. Yet even with such groundbreaking findings and a wealth of popular-level books exploring puzzles and brainteasers, research in recreational mathematics has often been neglected. This book brings together authors from a variety of specialties to present fascinating problems and solutions in recreational mathematics. The chapters show how sophisticated mathematics can help construct mazes that look like famous people, how the analysis of crossword puzzles has much in common with understanding epidemics, and how the theory of electrical circuits is useful in understanding the classic Towers of Hanoi puzzle. The card game SET® is related to the theory of error-correcting codes, and simple tic-tac-toe takes on a new life when played on an affine plane. Inspirations for the book's wealth of problems include board games, card tricks, fake coins, flexagons, pencil puzzles, poker, and so much more. Looking at a plethora of eclectic games and puzzles, this book is sure to entertain, challenge, and inspire academic mathematicians and avid math enthusiasts alike.

*Nathalie Deruelle and Jean-Philippe Uzan*

- Published in print:
- 2018
- Published Online:
- October 2018
- ISBN:
- 9780198786399
- eISBN:
- 9780191828669
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/oso/9780198786399.003.0002
- Subject:
- Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

This chapter defines the mathematical spaces to which the geometrical quantities discussed in the previous chapter—scalars, vectors, and the metric—belong. Its goal is to go from the concept of a ...
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This chapter defines the mathematical spaces to which the geometrical quantities discussed in the previous chapter—scalars, vectors, and the metric—belong. Its goal is to go from the concept of a vector as an object whose components transform as Tⁱ → 𝓡ⱼ ⁱTj under a change of frame to the ‘intrinsic’ concept of a vector, T. These concepts are also generalized to ‘tensors’. The chapter also briefly remarks on how to deal with non-Cartesian coordinates. The velocity vector v is defined as a ‘free’ vector belonging to the vector space ε3 which subtends ε3. As such, it is not bound to the point P at which it is evaluated. It is, however, possible to attach it to that point and to interpret it as the tangent to the trajectory at P.Less

This chapter defines the mathematical spaces to which the geometrical quantities discussed in the previous chapter—scalars, vectors, and the metric—belong. Its goal is to go from the concept of a vector as an object whose components transform as *T*ⁱ → 𝓡ⱼ ⁱT^{j} under a change of frame to the ‘intrinsic’ concept of a vector, *T*. These concepts are also generalized to ‘tensors’. The chapter also briefly remarks on how to deal with non-Cartesian coordinates. The velocity vector *v* is defined as a ‘free’ vector belonging to the vector space ε_{3} which subtends ε_{3}. As such, it is not bound to the point *P* at which it is evaluated. It is, however, possible to attach it to that point and to interpret it as the tangent to the trajectory at *P*.