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The Search for Knowledge‐Based Resolution: Science and Scientific Assessment, 1976–1985

Edward A. Parson

in Protecting the Ozone Layer: Science and Strategy

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195155495
eISBN:
9780199833955
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195155491.003.0004
Subject:
Political Science, American Politics

The major lines of scientific debate, research progress, and controversy over stratospheric ozone depletion from the mid 1970s to the mid 1980s are examined. Begins with the initial qualitative ... More


SOLAR RADIATION TRANSFER IN THE ATMOSPHERE

I. M. Vardavas and F. W. Taylor

in Radiation and Climate

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780199227471
eISBN:
9780191711138
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199227471.003.0006
Subject:
Physics, Geophysics, Atmospheric and Environmental Physics

This chapter examines the transfer of solar radiation within the Earth's atmosphere and at the surface. The main processes discussed are molecular absorption in the ultraviolet-visible and ... More


ATMOSPHERIC PHYSICS AND THERMODYNAMICS

I. M. Vardavas and F. W. Taylor

in Radiation and Climate

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780199227471
eISBN:
9780191711138
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199227471.003.0002
Subject:
Physics, Geophysics, Atmospheric and Environmental Physics

This chapter discusses the main components of the atmosphere and the trace gases that are significant for the greenhouse effect. The most important of these is water vapour, and hence the basic ... More


THE EARTH'S RADIATION BUDGET

I. M. Vardavas and F. W. Taylor

in Radiation and Climate

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780199227471
eISBN:
9780191711138
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199227471.003.0008
Subject:
Physics, Geophysics, Atmospheric and Environmental Physics

The Earth's radiation budget is examined in detail, beginning with the model input data requirements to generate the radiation fluxes. Requirements for satellite and ground-based validation data, ... More


Aerosols and Climate

Han Dolman

in Biogeochemical Cycles and Climate

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
June 2019
ISBN:
9780198779308
eISBN:
9780191824388
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198779308.003.0005
Subject:
Physics, Geophysics, Atmospheric and Environmental Physics

The chapter describes the important role aerosols may have played in the past and are still playing in today’s climate, discussing aerosol distribution, aerosol–climate interaction, aerosol–radiation ... More


Climatologies of Cloud-related Aerosols

in Clouds in the Perturbed Climate System: Their Relationship to Energy Balance, Atmospheric Dynamics, and Precipitation

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262012874
eISBN:
9780262255448
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262012874.003.0003
Subject:
Environmental Science, Climate

This chapter addresses the potential impacts of aerosols on climate and clouds. It first examines aerosol properties such as particle amount, size, composition, and shape, followed by a discussion on ... More


Why Climate-Change Skeptics Are Wrong

Kristin Shrader-Frechette

in What Will Work: Fighting Climate Change with Renewable Energy, Not Nuclear Power

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199794638
eISBN:
9780199919277
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199794638.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

Chapter 1 begins by stressing the severity of climate change (CC) and showing how, contrary to popular belief, atomic energy is not a viable solution to ... More


Alternative Climate-Change Theories

Douglas V. Hoyt and Kenneth H. Shatten

in The Role of the Sun in Climate Change

Published in print:
1997
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195094138
eISBN:
9780197560730
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195094138.003.0016
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Meteorology and Climatology

So far, we have primarily considered only the sun’s role in natural climatic change. This focus does not imply that the sun is the only cause of climatic ... More


Cloud Particle Precursors

Sonia M. Kreidenweis, Markus D. Petters, and Patrick Y. Chuang

in Clouds in the Perturbed Climate System: Their Relationship to Energy Balance, Atmospheric Dynamics, and Precipitation

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262012874
eISBN:
9780262255448
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262012874.003.0013
Subject:
Environmental Science, Climate

This chapter discusses the characteristic parameters of cloud particle precursors and the sensitivities of warm (liquid) and cold (mixed-phase and ice) cloud formation relevant to particle ... More


Biogeochemical Cycles and Climate

Han Dolman

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
June 2019
ISBN:
9780198779308
eISBN:
9780191824388
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198779308.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, Geophysics, Atmospheric and Environmental Physics

This book describes the interaction of the main biogeochemical cycles of the Earth and the physics of climate. It takes the perspective of Earth as an integrated system and provides examples of both ... More


Do No Evil, See No Evil

Jeanne Guillemin

in Anthrax: The Investigation of a Deadly Outbreak

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780520222045
eISBN:
9780520927100
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520222045.003.0022
Subject:
Anthropology, Medical Anthropology

This chapter discusses the start of the anthrax outbreak from the viewpoint of a military officer, first studying the huge reformations of the Yeltsin era and the equally large turnover in military ... More


Is “Arming the Future” with Geoengineering Really the Lesser Evil?: Some Doubts about the Ethics of Intentionally Manipulating the Climate System

Stephen M. Gardiner

in Climate Ethics: Essential Readings

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195399622
eISBN:
9780197562840
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195399622.003.0026
Subject:
Environmental Science, Environmentalist Thought and Ideology

The term geoengineering lacks a precise definition but is widely held to imply the intentional manipulation of the environment on a global scale. For most ... More


Climate: Mean State, Variability, and Change

Cor Schuurmans

in The Physical Geography of Western Europe

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780199277759
eISBN:
9780191917639
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199277759.003.0026
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Physical Geography and Topography

This chapter gives a description of the main characteristics of present-day climate. In describing the mean state and its variability, attention is also ... More


Effects of Ocean Acidification on the Marine Source of Atmospherically Active Trace Gases

Frances Hopkins and Philip Nightingale

in Ocean Acidification

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780199591091
eISBN:
9780191918001
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199591091.003.0016
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Oceanography and Hydrology

A wide range of trace gases, including dimethyl sulphide (DMS) and organohalogens, are formed in the surface oceans via biological and/or photochemical processes. ... More


Natural Dust and Pneumoconiosis in High Asia

Edward Derbyshire

in Geology and Health: Closing the Gap

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195162042
eISBN:
9780197562062
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195162042.003.0007
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Geochemistry

High Asia, defined here as that great tract of land from the Himalaya- Karakoram in the south to the Tian Shan in the north and the Pamir in the west to ... More


Power-Law Persistence in the Atmosphere: An Ideal Test Bed for Climate Models

Armin Bunde and Jan Eichner

in Nonextensive Entropy: Interdisciplinary Applications

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195159769
eISBN:
9780197562024
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195159769.003.0017
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Atmospheric Sciences

We review recent results on the appearance of long-term persistence in climatic records and their relevance for the evaluation of global climate models and rare ... More


Biogeochemical Cycling of Iodine and Selenium and Potential Geomedical Relevance

Eiliv Steinnes

in Geology and Health: Closing the Gap

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195162042
eISBN:
9780197562062
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195162042.003.0014
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Geochemistry

An increasing number of the 92 naturally occurring elements on Earth are now known to be essential to humans and other vertebrate species. In addition to ... More


Anthropogenic Distribution of Lead

E. Powell and C. Gonzales

in Geology and Health: Closing the Gap

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195162042
eISBN:
9780197562062
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195162042.003.0026
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Geochemistry

In 1980, Clair C. Patterson made an astonishing statement: “Sometime in the near future it probably will be shown that the older urban areas of the United ... More


The Relevance of Biogeochemistry to Amazon Development and Conservation

Michael McClain

in Title Pages

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195114317
eISBN:
9780197561140
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195114317.003.0004
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Geochemistry

To read the press of recent years, one might imagine that the fate of the world rests in the hands of those who would develop the Amazon basin. Waves of incoming ... More


Earth: Human Impact

Yuk L. Yung and William B. DeMore

in Photochemistry of Planetary Atmospheres

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195105018
eISBN:
9780197560990
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195105018.003.0013
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Atmospheric Sciences

For eons the global environment of the planet has shaped the biosphere, and has been in turn shaped by the biosphere. According to the Gaia hypothesis, the overall ... More


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