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The Case for Marking Public Plan Liabilities to Market

Jeremy Gold and Gordon Latter

in The Future of Public Employee Retirement Systems

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199573349
eISBN:
9780191721946
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199573349.003.0003
Subject:
Business and Management, Public Management, Pensions and Pension Management

State and local US pension plans hold an estimated $3 trillion in assets, with market values regularly disclosed in plan financial statements. By contrast, public defined benefit pension liabilities ... More


The Future of Public Employee Retirement Systems

Olivia S. Mitchell

in The Future of Public Employee Retirement Systems

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199573349
eISBN:
9780191721946
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199573349.003.0001
Subject:
Business and Management, Public Management, Pensions and Pension Management

Pension systems are a central component of the compensation package for workers in virtually every developed nation, and nowhere are they more important than for public sector employees. The growth ... More


Estimating State and Local Government Pension and Retiree Health Care Liabilities

Stephen T. McElhaney

in The Future of Public Employee Retirement Systems

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199573349
eISBN:
9780191721946
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199573349.003.0002
Subject:
Business and Management, Public Management, Pensions and Pension Management

Liabilities for pension and retiree health-care benefits provided by US state and local governments are causing concerns for taxpayers and for those holding government bonds. Many question whether ... More


Reforming the German Civil Servant Pension Plan

Raimond Maurer, Olivia S. Mitchell, and Ralph Rogalla

in The Future of Public Employee Retirement Systems

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199573349
eISBN:
9780191721946
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199573349.003.0009
Subject:
Business and Management, Public Management, Pensions and Pension Management

This chapter analyzes the risks and rewards of moving from an unfunded defined benefit pension system to a funded plan for civil servants in Germany, allowing for alternative portfolio mixes using a ... More


Objectifying Demographic Identities

Philip Kreager

in Categories and Contexts: Anthropological and Historical Studies in Critical Demography

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
April 2004
ISBN:
9780199270576
eISBN:
9780191600883
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199270570.003.0002
Subject:
Economics and Finance, History of Economic Thought

Over the course of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, demographic models, measures, and categories have played an influential role in identifying the groups of which modern societies are ... More


The Mirage of Private Unemployment Insurance

Nicholas Barr

in The Welfare State as Piggy Bank: Information, Risk, Uncertainty, and the Role of the State

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199246595
eISBN:
9780191595936
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199246599.003.0003
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Public and Welfare

Chapter 3 discusses unemployment insurance. Actuarial insurance faces a series of problems including adverse selection and – particularly – moral hazard. It is, therefore, not surprising that private ... More


Risk Transfer in Public Pension Plans

Olivia S. Mitchell and Kent Smetters

in The Pension Challenge: Risk Transfers and Retirement Income Security

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
August 2004
ISBN:
9780199266913
eISBN:
9780191601323
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199266913.003.0006
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Financial Economics

This chapter shows that existing pension actuarial methods transfer risk away from early generations towards later generations. This causes equal expected costs to appear as unequal risk-adjusted ... More


The Virtues of Randomization

in Against Prediction: Profiling, Policing, and Punishing in an Actuarial Age

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
March 2013
ISBN:
9780226316130
eISBN:
9780226315997
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226315997.003.0010
Subject:
Law, Constitutional and Administrative Law

The critiques set forth in this book reflect problems with the actuarial approach more generally—not just with specific types of stereotyping or profiles. This chapter sketches the contours and ... More


The Current State of the Science and the Law

Christopher Slobogin

in Proving the Unprovable: The Role of Law, Science, and Speculation in Adjudicating Culpability and Dangerousness

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780195189957
eISBN:
9780199893980
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195189957.003.0006
Subject:
Psychology, Forensic Psychology

This chapter begins by describing the current state of prediction science, which is improving but is still almost as likely to produce inaccurate judgments as accurate ones. It also makes the crucial ... More


Failed Attempts: The Frailties of Narrative Methods

J. D. Trout

in Measuring the Intentional World: Realism, Naturalism, and Quantitative Methods in the Behavioral Sciences

Published in print:
1998
Published Online:
February 2006
ISBN:
9780195107661
eISBN:
9780199786152
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195107667.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

The epistemological naturalism expressed by Population-Guided Estimation supports measured realism about the social and behavioral sciences, but also has striking implications for the way traditional ... More


China: The Pension System

Nicholas Barr and Peter Diamond

in Reforming Pensions: Principles and Policy Choices

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195311303
eISBN:
9780199893461
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195311303.003.0014
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Financial Economics

This chapter describes the pension system in China, including the basic pension and funded individual accounts. The chapter offers a brief discussion the pension system's antecedents, and assesses ... More


Geographic Profiling: The Fast, Frugal, and Accurate Way

Brent Snook, Paul J. Taylor, and Craig Bennell

in Heuristics: The Foundations of Adaptive Behavior

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780199744282
eISBN:
9780199894727
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199744282.003.0029
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Human-Technology Interaction

The current chapter addresses the ongoing debate about whether individuals can perform as well as actuarial techniques when confronted with real world, consequential decisions. A single experiment ... More


Sexual Predators and the Constitution of Dangerous Individuals

Stefan Vogler

in Sorting Sexualities: Expertise and the Politics of Legal Classification

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
January 2022
ISBN:
9780226769165
eISBN:
9780226776934
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226776934.003.0009
Subject:
Sociology, Gender and Sexuality

Chapter 8 shows that, in sex offender adjudications, risk is determined through a process of individualized assessment using tools that are universal, or understood to be anyway—actuarial tools, ... More


The Promise of Probability

Rachel Z. Friedman

in Probable Justice: Risk, Insurance, and the Welfare State

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
May 2021
ISBN:
9780226730769
eISBN:
9780226731094
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226731094.003.0004
Subject:
Political Science, Political Theory

This chapter focuses on the account of probability that helped to justify the first proposals for social insurance. Exemplified by Thomas Bayes and Pierre-Simon Laplace, this account increasingly ... More


Managing Risk in Reinsurance: From City Fires to Global Warming

Niels Viggo Haueter and Geoffrey Jones (eds)

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
December 2016
ISBN:
9780198754916
eISBN:
9780191816406
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198754916.001.0001
Subject:
Business and Management, Finance, Accounting, and Banking, International Business

The business of reinsurance developed at the fringe of financial services, and for most of its existence remained a low-profile but critical component of the global economy. This has changed ... More


The Unisex Insurance Debate and the Triumph of Actuarial Fairness

Caley Horan

in Insurance Era: Risk, Governance, and the Privatization of Security in Postwar America

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
January 2022
ISBN:
9780226784380
eISBN:
9780226784410
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226784410.003.0007
Subject:
Business and Management, Business History

This chapter examines public debates over sex discrimination in insurance risk classification during the 1970s and early 1980s. Feminist activists during this period identified gender-based risk ... More


The Restorative Gaze

Eric Stoddart

in Criminology and Public Theology: On Hope, Mercy and Restoration

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
May 2021
ISBN:
9781529207392
eISBN:
9781529207408
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Policy Press
DOI:
10.1332/policypress/9781529207392.003.0013
Subject:
Sociology, Law, Crime and Deviance

This chapter examines the intersection of surveillance and restorative justice. It acknowledges the analysis of personal information integral to criminal justice processes and critiques practices of ... More


Calculating Race: Racial Discrimination in Risk Assessment

Benjamin Wiggins

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780197504000
eISBN:
9780197504031
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780197504000.001.0001
Subject:
History, American History: 19th Century, American History: 20th Century

Calculating Race: Racial Discrimination in Risk Assessment presents the historical relationship between statistical risk assessment and race in the United States. It illustrates how, through a ... More


Characterizing Insurance

Rob Merkin and Jenny Steele

in Insurance and the Law of Obligations

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780199645749
eISBN:
9780191747823
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199645749.003.0002
Subject:
Law, Law of Obligations

Introduces the complexity of insurance and questions the dominance of an actuarial model. The actuarial model is associated with distributive, collectivising techniques, and these have also been ... More


Below decks on the youth justice flagship: the politics of evaluation

Peter Squires and Lynda Measor

in The politics of evaluation: Participation and policy implementation

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9781861346063
eISBN:
9781447303954
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Policy Press
DOI:
10.1332/policypress/9781861346063.003.0002
Subject:
Sociology, Social Research and Statistics

This chapter considers some of the dangers of national, centrally-driven evaluations, arguing that the main reason why evaluations cannot explain what works is their relative neglect of the ... More


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