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NeuroDynamix II: Concepts of Neurophysiology Illustrated by Computer Simulations

W. Otto Friesen and Jonathon Friesen

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780195371833
eISBN:
9780199865178
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195371833.001.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience

The electrical membrane potential is an important property for the functioning of living cells. Temporal variations of this potential generated by synaptic interactions and expressed as nerve ... More


Physiology: The Action Potential

Gordon M. Shepherd

in Creating Modern Neuroscience: The Revolutionary 1950s

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780195391503
eISBN:
9780199863464
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195391503.003.0006
Subject:
Neuroscience, History of Neuroscience

This chapter details early studies on signals in the nervous system. Different parts of the nervous system are interconnected by long fibers called “axons,” which enable them to function together to ... More


Stochastic Simulation of Neurons, Axons, and Action Potentials

A. Aldo Faisal

in Stochastic Methods in Neuroscience

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199235070
eISBN:
9780191715778
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199235070.003.0011
Subject:
Mathematics, Biostatistics

Variability is inherent in neurons. To account for variability we have to make use of stochastic models. We will take a look at this biologically more rigorous approach by studying the fundamental ... More


Axon Models

W. Otto Friesen and Jonathon A. Friesen

in NeuroDynamix II: Concepts of Neurophysiology Illustrated by Computer Simulations

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780195371833
eISBN:
9780199865178
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195371833.003.0011
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience

The Axon model simulates the equations and parameters derived from experiments by Hodgkin and Huxley on the squid giant axon. Because of the exact correspondence between the equations incorporated ... More


Current Sources in a Homogeneous and Isotropic Medium

Paul L. Nunez and Ramesh Srinivasan

in Electric Fields of the Brain: The neurophysics of EEG

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195050387
eISBN:
9780199865673
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195050387.003.0005
Subject:
Neuroscience, Neuroendocrine and Autonomic, Techniques

This chapter demonstrates the relationship of current sources to recorded potentials in volume conductors using a simple salt water fish tank experiment consisting of a dipole current source and ... More


Equations Underlying the Axon Models

W. Otto Friesen and Jonathon A. Friesen

in NeuroDynamix II: Concepts of Neurophysiology Illustrated by Computer Simulations

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780195371833
eISBN:
9780199865178
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195371833.003.0019
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience

The Axon models present the fundamental concepts that underlie the generation and propagation of the nerve impulses. This chapter includes a complete list of the equations that describe the ... More


Voltage-clamp studies in axons: Macroscopic and single-channel currents

WERNER VOGEL and JÜRGEN R. SCHWARZ

in The Axon: Structure, Function and Pathophysiology

Published in print:
1995
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195082937
eISBN:
9780199865802
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195082937.003.0013
Subject:
Neuroscience, Disorders of the Nervous System

This chapter describes macroscopic membrane currents measured in amphibian and mammalian nodes of Ranvier with the voltage-clamp method. These results are compared with those of single-channel ... More


The Norms of Mechanistic Explanation

Carl F. Craver

in Explaining the Brain

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780199299317
eISBN:
9780191715075
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199299317.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, Philosophy of Science

This chapter develops a normatively adequate mechanistic model of constitutive explanation (henceforth, mechanistic explanation). The account satisfies two goals: first, to provide an alternative to ... More


Basis of the Nerve Impulse

W. Otto Friesen and Jonathon A. Friesen

in NeuroDynamix II: Concepts of Neurophysiology Illustrated by Computer Simulations

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780195371833
eISBN:
9780199865178
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195371833.003.0004
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience

The rapid conduction of signals by neurons over distances greater than about 1 mm occurs almost exclusively by electrical impulses. This chapter presents the fundamental concepts that underlie the ... More


Action potential conduction recorded optically in normal, demyelinated, and remyelinating axons

PETER SHRAGER

in The Axon: Structure, Function and Pathophysiology

Published in print:
1995
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195082937
eISBN:
9780199865802
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195082937.003.0018
Subject:
Neuroscience, Disorders of the Nervous System

This chapter discusses optical studies on axonal properties. Topics covered include optical studies on vertebrate myelinated axons, experimental demyelination of axons, optical recording from single ... More


Explaining the Brain

Carl F. Craver

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780199299317
eISBN:
9780191715075
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199299317.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, Philosophy of Science

What distinguishes good explanations in neuroscience from bad? This book constructs and defends standards for evaluating neuroscientific explanations that are grounded in a systematic view of what ... More


Motor Unit Potential Studies

Jay A. Liveson and Dong M. Ma

in Laboratory Reference for Clinical Neurophysiology

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780195129243
eISBN:
9780199847792
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195129243.003.0023
Subject:
Neuroscience, Techniques

The discharge of an anterior horn cell causes an action potential to travel down its axon, producing an almost synchronous depolarization of the muscle fibers it innervates. This physiologic unit is ... More


Stochastic Dynamic Bifurcations and Excitability

Nils Berglund and Barbara Gentz

in Stochastic Methods in Neuroscience

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199235070
eISBN:
9780191715778
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199235070.003.0003
Subject:
Mathematics, Biostatistics

Some models of action potential generation in neurons like the Fitzhugh–Nagumo and the Morris–Lecar model are given by slow–fast differential equations. We outline a general theory allowing us to ... More


Principles of dendritic integration

Nelson Spruston, Greg Stuart, and Michael Häusser

in Dendrites

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780198745273
eISBN:
9780191819735
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198745273.003.0012
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems, Molecular and Cellular Systems

The primary role of neurons is to integrate incoming information conveyed by synaptic input and convert it into an output, usually in the form of action potentials. This process is called synaptic ... More


Where Are the Switches on This Thing?

L F. Abbott

in 23 Problems in Systems Neuroscience

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195148220
eISBN:
9780199864676
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195148220.003.0021
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems

Self-regulated switching is vital to the operation of complex machines such as computers. The essential building block of a computer is a voltage-gated switch, the transistor, that is turned off and ... More


Muscle: The New Physiology

Alan J. McComas

in Galvani’s Spark: The Story of the Nerve Impulse

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199751754
eISBN:
9780199897094
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199751754.003.0017
Subject:
Neuroscience, History of Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems

Hodgkin and Huxley turn their attention to muscle. Hodgkin measures the membrane and action potentials of the fibres with glass microelectrodes, while Huxley is interested in the nature of the ... More


Chemical excitation and sensitization in nociceptors

Kress Michaela and Reeh Peter W.

in Neurobiology of Nociceptors

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198523345
eISBN:
9780191724527
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198523345.003.0011
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems

From early psychophysical studies a variety of exogenous and endogenous substances have been found to induce pain and hyperalgesia, that is, to be algogenic. To study the underlying mechanisms ... More


Single-Fiber Electromyography and Related Studies

Jay A. Liveson and Dong M. Ma

in Laboratory Reference for Clinical Neurophysiology

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780195129243
eISBN:
9780199847792
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195129243.003.0019
Subject:
Neuroscience, Techniques

The techniques described in this chapter depend on the ability of the examiner to isolate single-fiber action potentials (SFAPs). These are the electrical potentials caused by the discharge of single ... More


Information Processing in Protein Circuits

Peter Sterling

in Principles of Neural Design

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
September 2016
ISBN:
9780262028707
eISBN:
9780262327312
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262028707.003.0006
Subject:
Neuroscience, Research and Theory

A protein circuit processes information like an electronic circuit -- by passing a signal through successive components that transform it according to their particular input-output (I/O) functions. ... More


Neuromuscular Excitability: The Modern Explanation

Marco Piccolino, Marco Bresadola, and Nicholas Wade

in Shocking Frogs: Galvani, Volta, and the Electric Origins of Neuroscience

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
June 2014
ISBN:
9780199782161
eISBN:
9780199345182
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199782161.003.0010
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience, Cognitive Psychology

Based on a language largely accessible to a non-specialized readership, this chapter presents some of the fundamental aspects of the modern understanding on the way electricity is involved in nerve ... More


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