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 Paternalism and Its Justification

Bernard Gert, Charles M. Culver, and K. Danner Clouser

in Bioethics: A systematic approach

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2006
ISBN:
9780195159066
eISBN:
9780199786466
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195159063.003.0010
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This chapter discusses the four features of paternalism: (1) benefits the patient, (2) needs moral justification, (3) does not have patient’s consent, and (4) the patient believes he can make his own ... More


Ideal Code, Real World: A Rule-Consequentialist Theory of Morality

Brad Hooker

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199256570
eISBN:
9780191597701
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199256578.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

Begins by explaining and arguing for certain criteria for assessing normative moral theories. Then argues that these criteria lead to a rule‐consequentialist moral theory. According to ... More


The Challenge to Consequentialism: A Troubling Normative Triad

Paul Hurley

in Beyond Consequentialism

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199559305
eISBN:
9780191721212
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199559305.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

This chapter focuses on the challenge to consequentialism by locating standard act consequentialism within a triad of claims that are in considerable tension with each other. Acceptance of any two of ... More


Is Rule‐Consequentialism Guilty of Collapse or Incoherence?

Brad Hooker

in Ideal Code, Real World: A Rule-Consequentialist Theory of Morality

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199256570
eISBN:
9780191597701
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199256578.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

According to this chapter's arguments, rule‐consequentialism need not be guilty of either collapse into extensional equivalence with act‐consequentialism or incoherence. The chapter also explains how ... More


 The Evolution of Ethical Theories

Joel J. Kupperman

in Ethics and Qualities of Life

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780195308198
eISBN:
9780199867325
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195308198.003.0014
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This chapter explores ways in which an ethical theory can develop through time, and in particular the variations in Kantian and consequentialist ethical theories. It argues that if offered a choice ... More


Transcending Ethics

Charles Goodman

in Consequences of Compassion: An Interpretation and Defense of Buddhist Ethics

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195375190
eISBN:
9780199871377
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195375190.003.0007
Subject:
Religion, Buddhism

This chapter explains the sense in which Mahāyāna practitioners must go beyond ethics, relating this concept to the doctrine of no self. Advanced Mahayanists internalize morality so completely that ... More


 The Bases of Ethical Theory

Joel J. Kupperman

in Ethics and Qualities of Life

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780195308198
eISBN:
9780199867325
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195308198.003.0010
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This chapter discusses the three foundations—fairness, respect for persons, and sympathy—and examines how the considerations that they point toward might be combined in a single theory. It considers ... More


Two Kinds of Reasons

Christopher Woodard

in Taking Utilitarianism Seriously

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
October 2019
ISBN:
9780198732624
eISBN:
9780191796845
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198732624.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

One kind of reason for action is that the action would have a good outcome. According to Act Consequentialism all reasons are like this. However, these ‘act-based’ reasons may be contrasted with ... More


Act-Consequentialism, Pluralist Deontology

Thomas Hurka

in British Ethical Theorists from Sidgwick to Ewing

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
November 2014
ISBN:
9780199233625
eISBN:
9780191792694
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199233625.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

The school’s members defended specific versions of consequentialism and deontology. This chapter first discusses Sidgwick’s and Moore’s combination of act- and indirect consequentialism, where the ... More


Mimicking Duties

Elizabeth Cripps

in Climate Change and the Moral Agent: Individual Duties in an Interdependent World

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2013
ISBN:
9780199665655
eISBN:
9780191753039
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199665655.003.0005
Subject:
Political Science, Environmental Politics

This chapter asks what individuals should do in cases of unfulfilled weakly collective duties. Three possibilities are introduced: mimicking duties (do what would be required by fair collective ... More


Conclusions

Derek Parfit

in On What Matters: Volume One

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780199572809
eISBN:
9780191809866
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199572809.003.0018
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

This concluding chapter presents a philosophical discussion of Immanuel Kant's consequentialism and contractualism. It first considers Act Consequentialism, which says everyone ought always to do, or ... More


Rejecting the Fifth Premise

David Boonin

in The Non-Identity Problem and the Ethics of Future People

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
November 2014
ISBN:
9780199682935
eISBN:
9780191787713
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199682935.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This chapter explains and critically evaluates those solutions to the non-identity problem that involve rejecting the fifth premise of the argument that gives rise to the problem, the claim that if ... More


Act Consequentialism and Common Sense Morality

Derek Parfit

in On What Matters: Volume Three

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
December 2017
ISBN:
9780198778608
eISBN:
9780191853487
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198778608.003.0022
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This chapter reveals some insights into act consequentialism. It begins with the claim that it would often be wrong to treat people in certain ways, such as deceiving or coercing them, or breaking ... More


Getting Moral Wrongness into the Picture

Stephen Darwall

in Moral Brains: The Neuroscience of Morality

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
September 2016
ISBN:
9780199357666
eISBN:
9780199357697
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199357666.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

Joshua Greene argues that science can advance ethics and that, in particular, empirical evidence tends to support characteristically consequentialist over deontological judgments, because ... More


On Having an Inexhaustible Source of Moral Requirements

Lisa Tessman

in Moral Failure: On the Impossible Demands of Morality

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
November 2014
ISBN:
9780199396146
eISBN:
9780199396160
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199396146.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Chapter 7 notes that the question of moral demandingness usually focuses on maximizing act consequentialist theories that posit extreme, impartial moral demands. The chapter suggests considering ... More


The Right and the Good

Derek Parfit

in On What Matters: Volume Three

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
December 2017
ISBN:
9780198778608
eISBN:
9780191853487
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198778608.003.0020
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This chapter introduces a number of claims. If we are not act consequentialists, we may think that we could always reasonably want and hope that things will go in the ways that would be best and that ... More


Demanding the Demanding

Ben Sachs

in Effective Altruism: Philosophical Issues

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
October 2019
ISBN:
9780198841364
eISBN:
9780191881428
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198841364.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

Several authors have worried, or anyway assumed, that confronting people with highly demanding moral requirements would be counterproductive, in the sense of causing people to turn away from ... More


Further Issues in Humanitarian Intervention

Fernando R. Tesón

in Debating Humanitarian Intervention: Should We Try to Save Strangers?

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780190202903
eISBN:
9780190202934
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190202903.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy, Political Philosophy

The chapter examines three issues addressed in the literature. The first is the objection that governments cannot be trusted with making these intervention decisions. The chapter accepts the force of ... More


Obvious Objections

Sean McKeever and Michael Ridge

in Intuition, Theory, and Anti-Theory in Ethics

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
April 2015
ISBN:
9780198713227
eISBN:
9780191781650
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198713227.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

People often say that some normative ethical theory, act consequentialism perhaps, faces some objection based on ‘obvious intuitions’. It is also sometimes said—e.g. by Bernard Williams—that a theory ... More


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