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Alzheimer’s Disease—is it Caused by Cerebrovascular Dysfunction?

Christian Humpel

in Neurovascular Medicine: Pursuing Cellular Longevity for Healthy Aging

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780195326697
eISBN:
9780199864874
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195326697.003.0015
Subject:
Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive chronic disorder characterized by β-amyloid plaques, tau pathology, cell death of cholinergic neurons, and inflammatory responses. The reasons for this ... More


Nausea and vomiting

Hugo Farne, Edward Norris-Cervetto, and James Warbrick-Smith

in Oxford Cases in Medicine and Surgery

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780198716228
eISBN:
9780191916809
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198716228.003.0019
Subject:
Clinical Medicine and Allied Health, Surgery

The vomiting centre (mainly histamine and acetylcholine receptors) in the medulla oblongata can be activated by four main input systems shown in Figure 13.1: the ... More


Diarrhoea

Hugo Farne, Edward Norris-Cervetto, and James Warbrick-Smith

in Oxford Cases in Medicine and Surgery

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780198716228
eISBN:
9780191916809
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198716228.003.0026
Subject:
Clinical Medicine and Allied Health, Surgery

Strictly speaking, diarrhoea is an increase in the amount of stool passed daily to over 300 g of stool per day. This is usually accompanied by increased frequency and ... More


Hibernation and diving

Robert Elsner

in Diving Seals and Meditating Yogis: Strategic Metabolic Retreats

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
January 2016
ISBN:
9780226246710
eISBN:
9780226247045
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226247045.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Animal Behavior / Behavioral Ecology

This chapter identifies the differences between diving and hibernation. The primary defining characteristics of both diving and hibernation rest in their profound reductions in metabolism, while ... More


Diabetes Drugs

Jie Jack Li

in Laughing Gas, Viagra, and Lipitor: The Human Stories Behind the Drugs We Use

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195300994
eISBN:
9780197562390
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195300994.003.0011
Subject:
Chemistry, Medicinal Chemistry

Diabetes mellitus is a multisystem disease associated with the loss of control of physiological glucose concentrations in the blood. The disease is broadly broken down into two types based on ... More


Renal Medicine

William White

in Oxford Assess and Progress: Clinical Medicine

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780198812968
eISBN:
9780191917226
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198812968.003.0012
Subject:
Clinical Medicine and Allied Health, Professional Development in Medicine

The kidney causes problems for medical students and junior doctors alike— the convoluted journey from plasma to urine, the conundrum of what is reabsorbed and excreted where, and the tangled web of ... More


HIV, AIDS, and Medical Multimorbid Illnesses

Joseph Z. Lux and Harold W. Goforth

in Handbook of AIDS Psychiatry

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195372571
eISBN:
9780197562666
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195372571.003.0014
Subject:
Clinical Medicine and Allied Health, Psychiatry

Since the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy, clinicians have seen a sharp decrease in the incidence of many HIV-associated comorbidities, and patients with access and adherence to ... More


Anaesthesia and intensive care

Alex Bonner (ed.)

in Oxford Assess and Progress: Clinical Specialties

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780198802907
eISBN:
9780191917165
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198802907.003.0020
Subject:
Clinical Medicine and Allied Health, Professional Development in Medicine

Anaesthesia is a relatively young specialty by comparison with its counterparts. William Morton administered the first anaesthetic in 1846 in Boston, Massachusetts, and the Royal College of ... More


Intensive care

Caroline Whymark, Ross Junkin, and Judith Ramsey

in SBAs for the Final FRCA

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780198803294
eISBN:
9780191917172
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198803294.003.0015
Subject:
Clinical Medicine and Allied Health, Professional Development in Medicine

To pass the written part of the FRCA, candidates must achieve the pass mark for the SAQs and the MCQ/ SBA papers combined. Therefore, doing particularly well in one paper, or one area, can ... More


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