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Coral Reefs in the Modern World

Charles R. C. Sheppard, Simon K. Davy, and Graham M. Pilling

in The Biology of Coral Reefs

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198566359
eISBN:
9780191713934
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198566359.003.0008
Subject:
Biology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology, Aquatic Biology

Today coral reefs, perhaps more than other marine systems, are suffering from numerous pressures. As a result many have succumbed as functioning ecosystems. Nutrients and industrial pollution, ... More


Acidification: Background and History

Jean-Pierre Gattuso and Lina Hansson

in Title Pages

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780199591091
eISBN:
9780191918001
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199591091.003.0006
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Oceanography and Hydrology

The ocean and the atmosphere exchange massive amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2). The pre-industrial influx from the ocean to the atmosphere was 70.6 Gt C yr –1 , while ... More


Growth and Diversification Patterns

Marcelo Sánchez

in Embryos in Deep Time: The Rock Record of Biological Development

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780520271937
eISBN:
9780520952300
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520271937.003.0006
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Fossils potentially provide direct evidence on how changes in growth strategies may have affected diversification patterns in geologic time. New strategies may have allowed some species to exploit ... More


“Nuisance Beavers” Claim Their Land

Dietland Müller-Schwarze

in The Beaver: Its Life and Impact

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780801450105
eISBN:
9780801460869
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Cornell University Press
DOI:
10.7591/cornell/9780801450105.003.0019
Subject:
Biology, Animal Behavior / Behavioral Ecology

This chapter examines the impact of the so-called “nuisance beavers” on the landscape. It argues that “nuisance beaver” is a misnomer, since damage to crops, tree plantations, roads, water supplies, ... More


The Anthropocene Begins

Jan Zalasiewicz and Mark Williams

in The Goldilocks Planet: The 4 billion year story of Earth's climate

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780199593576
eISBN:
9780191918018
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199593576.003.0016
Subject:
Environmental Science, Environmentalist Thought and Ideology

What is the future for the planet, and for climate? Gazing into crystal balls is a pastime that humans have a fascination for. It is also one in which they have a ... More


The Anthropocene

John S. Dryzek, Richard B. Norgaard, and David Schlosberg

in Climate-Challenged Society

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780199660100
eISBN:
9780191918292
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199660100.003.0011
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Meteorology and Climatology

Climate change will challenge the human community in many ways for centuries to come. Human influence on the climate is now the primary driver of the shift to a less ... More


Soil and the Distant Past

Richard Bardgett

in Title Pages

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780199668564
eISBN:
9780191918339
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199668564.003.0006
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Soil Science

Rainbow Beach is a small town on the coastal dunes of eastern Australia, near Brisbane. I had travelled there to meet with some colleagues to sample soils from the ... More


Physiological effects of ocean acidification on animal calcifiers

Inna M. Sokolova, Omera B. Matoo, Gary H. Dickinson, and Elia Beniash

in Stressors in the Marine Environment: Physiological and ecological responses; societal implications

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780198718826
eISBN:
9780191788352
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198718826.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Aquatic Biology, Ecology

This chapter reviews the current state of knowledge about the diversity in physiological responses (including energy metabolism, acid–base balance, and biomineralization) to ocean acidification (OA) ... More


Climate’s Challenges

John S. Dryzek, Richard B. Norgaard, and David Schlosberg

in Title Pages

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780199660100
eISBN:
9780191918292
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199660100.003.0005
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Meteorology and Climatology

Climate change presents a particularly tough challenge. There are of course plenty of other tough problems around: inequality, poverty, terrorism, the instabilities of ... More


Modeling Overview

Craig M. Bethke

in Title Pages

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195094756
eISBN:
9780197560778
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195094756.003.0006
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Geochemistry

A model is a simplified version of reality that is useful as a tool. A successful model strikes a balance between realism and practicality. Properly constructed, a ... More


The Chemical Environment of Lakes

Andrew S. Cohen

in Paleolimnology: The History and Evolution of Lake Systems

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195133530
eISBN:
9780197561577
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195133530.003.0008
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Geology and the Lithosphere

Understanding lake chemistry is critical for correctly interpreting the geochemical archives of lake deposits. Elemental and isotopic distributions in lakes are ... More


Soil Management: An Overview

Anthony S. R. Juo and Kathrin Franzluebbers

in Tropical Soils: Properties and Management for Sustainable Agriculture

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195115987
eISBN:
9780197561157
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195115987.003.0013
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Soil Science

The term “soil management” refers to the human manipulation of chemical, physical, and biological conditions of the soil for the production of agricultural ... More


Geothermometry

Craig M. Bethke

in Geochemical Reaction Modeling: Concepts and Applications

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195094756
eISBN:
9780197560778
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195094756.003.0021
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Geochemistry

Geothermometry is the use of a fluid’s (or, although not discussed here, a rock’s) chemical composition to estimate the temperature at which it equilibrated in the ... More


Causes

Michael Lannoo

in Malformed Frogs: The Collapse of Aquatic Ecosystems

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520255883
eISBN:
9780520942530
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520255883.003.0005
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology

This chapter lists the natural and manmade causes of frog malformations. The natural causes of malformations include wounds from failed predation attempts, fish excrement, extreme tadpole densities, ... More


Soil Fertility

Anthony S. R. Juo and Kathrin Franzluebbers

in Tropical Soils: Properties and Management for Sustainable Agriculture

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195115987
eISBN:
9780197561157
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195115987.003.0009
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Soil Science

In the natural world, plant species evolve and adapt to specific soil and climatic conditions. The productivity and stability of a natural soil-plant ... More


Acid Rain: Scientific Expertise and Governance across the Systemic Divide

Eglė Rindzevičiūtė

in The Power of Systems: How Policy Sciences Opened Up the Cold War World

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9781501703188
eISBN:
9781501706257
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Cornell University Press
DOI:
10.7591/cornell/9781501703188.003.0008
Subject:
Political Science, Russian Politics

This chapter details the development of the regional air pollution information and simulation model (RAINS) in 1984, a project which has been retrospectively described as one of the highest ... More


Ecosystem processes

Lawrence R. Walker

in The Biology of Disturbed Habitats

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199575299
eISBN:
9780191774836
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199575299.003.0005
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

Disturbances disrupt ecosystem processes, thereby affecting the distribution and abundance of biota. Disturbances alter light and temperature regimes, carbon dioxide and nutrient fluxes, and ... More


Climate Change Impacts on Ocean and Coastal Law: U.S. and International Perspectives

Randall S. Abate (ed.)

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
January 2015
ISBN:
9780199368747
eISBN:
9780199368761
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199368747.001.0001
Subject:
Law, Environmental and Energy Law, Public International Law

Ocean and Coastal Law has grown rapidly in the past three decades as a specialty area within Natural Resources Law and Environmental Law. The protection of oceans and coasts has received increased ... More


Acid Rain and the Precautionary Principle

Rachel Emma Rothschild

in Poisonous Skies: Acid Rain and the Globalization of Pollution

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
January 2020
ISBN:
9780226634715
eISBN:
9780226634852
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226634852.003.0008
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

In the face of concerted opposition to reducing fossil fuel emissions from industry, ideas about the importance of obtaining scientific evidence of environmental harm underwent a significant shift in ... More


Climate Change Impacts on Ocean and Coastal Law: Scientific Realities and Legal Responses

Randall S. Abate and Sarah Ellen Krejci

in Climate Change Impacts on Ocean and Coastal Law: U.S. and International Perspectives

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
January 2015
ISBN:
9780199368747
eISBN:
9780199368761
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199368747.003.0001
Subject:
Law, Environmental and Energy Law, Public International Law

This chapter provides an overview of the challenges that Ocean and Coastal Law faces in responding to climate change impacts. First, it describes the geological history of climate change and explains ... More


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