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Coral Reefs in the Modern World

Charles R. C. Sheppard, Simon K. Davy, and Graham M. Pilling

in The Biology of Coral Reefs

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198566359
eISBN:
9780191713934
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198566359.003.0008
Subject:
Biology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology, Aquatic Biology

Today coral reefs, perhaps more than other marine systems, are suffering from numerous pressures. As a result many have succumbed as functioning ecosystems. Nutrients and industrial pollution, ... More


Growth and Diversification Patterns

Marcelo Sánchez

in Embryos in Deep Time: The Rock Record of Biological Development

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780520271937
eISBN:
9780520952300
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520271937.003.0006
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Fossils potentially provide direct evidence on how changes in growth strategies may have affected diversification patterns in geologic time. New strategies may have allowed some species to exploit ... More


“Nuisance Beavers” Claim Their Land

Dietland Müller-Schwarze

in The Beaver: Its Life and Impact

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780801450105
eISBN:
9780801460869
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Cornell University Press
DOI:
10.7591/cornell/9780801450105.003.0019
Subject:
Biology, Animal Behavior / Behavioral Ecology

This chapter examines the impact of the so-called “nuisance beavers” on the landscape. It argues that “nuisance beaver” is a misnomer, since damage to crops, tree plantations, roads, water supplies, ... More


Causes

Michael Lannoo

in Malformed Frogs: The Collapse of Aquatic Ecosystems

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520255883
eISBN:
9780520942530
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520255883.003.0005
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology

This chapter lists the natural and manmade causes of frog malformations. The natural causes of malformations include wounds from failed predation attempts, fish excrement, extreme tadpole densities, ... More


Physiological effects of ocean acidification on animal calcifiers

Inna M. Sokolova, Omera B. Matoo, Gary H. Dickinson, and Elia Beniash

in Stressors in the Marine Environment: Physiological and ecological responses; societal implications

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780198718826
eISBN:
9780191788352
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198718826.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Aquatic Biology, Ecology

This chapter reviews the current state of knowledge about the diversity in physiological responses (including energy metabolism, acid–base balance, and biomineralization) to ocean acidification (OA) ... More


Ecosystem processes

Lawrence R. Walker

in The Biology of Disturbed Habitats

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199575299
eISBN:
9780191774836
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199575299.003.0005
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

Disturbances disrupt ecosystem processes, thereby affecting the distribution and abundance of biota. Disturbances alter light and temperature regimes, carbon dioxide and nutrient fluxes, and ... More


Acid Rain: Scientific Expertise and Governance across the Systemic Divide

Eglė Rindzevičiūtė

in The Power of Systems: How Policy Sciences Opened Up the Cold War World

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9781501703188
eISBN:
9781501706257
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Cornell University Press
DOI:
10.7591/cornell/9781501703188.003.0008
Subject:
Political Science, Russian Politics

This chapter details the development of the regional air pollution information and simulation model (RAINS) in 1984, a project which has been retrospectively described as one of the highest ... More


Climate Change Impacts on Ocean and Coastal Law: U.S. and International Perspectives

Randall S. Abate (ed.)

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
January 2015
ISBN:
9780199368747
eISBN:
9780199368761
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199368747.001.0001
Subject:
Law, Environmental and Energy Law, Public International Law

Ocean and Coastal Law has grown rapidly in the past three decades as a specialty area within Natural Resources Law and Environmental Law. The protection of oceans and coasts has received increased ... More


Acid Rain and the Precautionary Principle

Rachel Emma Rothschild

in Poisonous Skies: Acid Rain and the Globalization of Pollution

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
January 2020
ISBN:
9780226634715
eISBN:
9780226634852
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226634852.003.0008
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

In the face of concerted opposition to reducing fossil fuel emissions from industry, ideas about the importance of obtaining scientific evidence of environmental harm underwent a significant shift in ... More


Climate Change Impacts on Ocean and Coastal Law: Scientific Realities and Legal Responses

Randall S. Abate and Sarah Ellen Krejci

in Climate Change Impacts on Ocean and Coastal Law: U.S. and International Perspectives

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
January 2015
ISBN:
9780199368747
eISBN:
9780199368761
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199368747.003.0001
Subject:
Law, Environmental and Energy Law, Public International Law

This chapter provides an overview of the challenges that Ocean and Coastal Law faces in responding to climate change impacts. First, it describes the geological history of climate change and explains ... More


Curbing CO2 Pollution: Using Existing Laws to Address Ocean Acidification

Miyoko Sakashita

in Climate Change Impacts on Ocean and Coastal Law: U.S. and International Perspectives

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
January 2015
ISBN:
9780199368747
eISBN:
9780199368761
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199368747.003.0002
Subject:
Law, Environmental and Energy Law, Public International Law

This chapter highlights that the United States has the ability and the duty under existing U.S. law to regulate carbon dioxide pollution that is causing ocean acidification. Specifically, it explains ... More


Using the Clean Air Act to Address Ocean Acidification

Margaret E. Peloso

in Climate Change Impacts on Ocean and Coastal Law: U.S. and International Perspectives

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
January 2015
ISBN:
9780199368747
eISBN:
9780199368761
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199368747.003.0003
Subject:
Law, Environmental and Energy Law, Public International Law

The most significant driver of ocean acidification globally is rising CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere, which result in increasing concentrations of dissolved CO2 in seawater. Because this major ... More


The cellular responses of marine algae and invertebrates to ultraviolet radiation, alone and in combination with other common abiotic stressors

David J. Burritt and Miles D. Lamare

in Stressors in the Marine Environment: Physiological and ecological responses; societal implications

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780198718826
eISBN:
9780191788352
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198718826.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Aquatic Biology, Ecology

This chapter provides an overview of the key physiological responses in marine algae and invertebrates exposed to ultraviolet radiation. It outlines the importance of spectral irradiances and ... More


Improving ‘shark park’ protections under threat from climate change using the conservation physiology toolbox

Ian A. Bouyoucos and Jodie L. Rummer

in Conservation Physiology: Applications for Wildlife Conservation and Management

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
January 2021
ISBN:
9780198843610
eISBN:
9780191879401
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198843610.003.0011
Subject:
Biology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology, Ecology

Sharks and rays are among the most threatened aquatic vertebrate taxa. This is due to a combination of their slow generation times, exploitation within the fisheries, and habitat degradation. Climate ... More


Ecological effects of ocean acidification

M. Débora Iglesias-Rodriguez, Katharina E. Fabricius, and Paul McElhany

in Stressors in the Marine Environment: Physiological and ecological responses; societal implications

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780198718826
eISBN:
9780191788352
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198718826.003.0011
Subject:
Biology, Aquatic Biology, Ecology

Changes in seawater chemistry driven by ocean acidification are altering the physiological performance and ecology of marine biota. Ocean acidification effects on calcification, photosynthesis, and ... More


Ecological impacts of ultraviolet-B radiation on marine ecosystems

Sébastien Moreau, Francesca Vidussi, Gustavo Ferreyra, and Behzad Mostajir

in Stressors in the Marine Environment: Physiological and ecological responses; societal implications

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780198718826
eISBN:
9780191788352
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198718826.003.0015
Subject:
Biology, Aquatic Biology, Ecology

Ultraviolet B radiation (UVBR, 280–320 nm), the most biologically damaging portion of the solar spectra reaching the Earth’s ground, received considerable scientific attention after the discovery of ... More


Outlook: Crustaceans in the Anthropocene

Karolina Bącela-Spychalska, Gary C. B. Poore, and Michał Grabowski

in Evolution and Biogeography: Volume 8

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
January 2021
ISBN:
9780190637842
eISBN:
9780197538265
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190637842.003.0018
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Since the mid-20th century we have been living in a new geological epoch, Anthropocene, characterized by an overwhelming impact of human activity on the Earth’s ecosystems, leading to mass species ... More


Global Climate Change

Peter J. Hogarth

in The Biology of Mangroves and Seagrasses, Third Edition

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
August 2015
ISBN:
9780198716549
eISBN:
9780191802676
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198716549.003.0012
Subject:
Biology, Aquatic Biology, Ecology

Global climate change will significantly affect mangroves and seagrasses. Rising atmospheric CO2 and concomitant ocean acidification will probably have only minor effects. Increasing temperature will ... More


Climate change cumulative impacts on deep-sea ecosystems

Nadine Le Bris and Lisa A. Levin

in Natural Capital and Exploitation of the Deep Ocean

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
October 2020
ISBN:
9780198841654
eISBN:
9780191877117
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198841654.003.0009
Subject:
Biology, Aquatic Biology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology

Climate models report that the environmental changes resulting from excess CO2 and heat absorption by the ocean already reach many deep-ocean margins, basins, and seas. Decadal monitoring programmes ... More


Effects of Environmental Conditions on Larval Growth and Development

Chaoshu Zeng, Guiomar Rotllant, Luis Giménez, and Nicholas Romano

in Developmental Biology and Larval Ecology: The Natural History of the Crustacea, Volume 7

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
March 2021
ISBN:
9780190648954
eISBN:
9780197538005
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190648954.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology, Aquatic Biology

The vast majority of crustaceans are aquatic, living in either marine or freshwater environments. Marine crustaceans—such as copepods, in particular—are ubiquitous in the oceans and perhaps the most ... More


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