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Against Absolute Goodness

Richard Kraut

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199844463
eISBN:
9780199919550
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199844463.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

Are there things we should value because they are, quite simply, good? If so, such things might be said to have “absolute goodness.” They would be good simpliciter or full stop—not good for someone, ... More


Moore and the Idea of Goodness

Richard Kraut

in Against Absolute Goodness

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199844463
eISBN:
9780199919550
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199844463.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This chapter elaborates on the main thesis pursued in this study: “Are there things we should value because they are, quite simply, good?”. Moore gives an unequivocally affirmative answer to the ... More


An Argument for Absolute Goodness

Richard Kraut

in Against Absolute Goodness

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199844463
eISBN:
9780199919550
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199844463.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This chapter presents the main arguments of the current study. The discussion proceeds on the basis of entirely secular assumptions. If God exists, and if God is absolute goodness, then there is such ... More


Further Reflections on the Ethical Objection

Richard Kraut

in Against Absolute Goodness

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199844463
eISBN:
9780199919550
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199844463.003.0015
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This chapter argues that it is that in all our interactions with all other human beings, we should be guided by our conception of what is good for them rather than by any conception of what is good ... More


The Case against Absolute Goodness Reviewed

Richard Kraut

in Against Absolute Goodness

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199844463
eISBN:
9780199919550
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199844463.003.0028
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This chapter reviews the arguments against absolute goodness. If some things should be valued because they are, quite simply, good, we should be able to say with some confidence what they are. But ... More


Recent Skepticism about Absolute Goodness

Richard Kraut

in Against Absolute Goodness

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199844463
eISBN:
9780199919550
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199844463.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This chapter focuses on how others have also arrived at a skeptical conclusion about absolute goodness, although the route by which this book comes to that conclusion is different from those that ... More


Better States of Affairs and Buck-Passing

Richard Kraut

in Against Absolute Goodness

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199844463
eISBN:
9780199919550
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199844463.003.0017
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This chapter continues the discussion from Chapter 16 and connects it with the earlier discussion of Scanlon's buck-passing account of value. It argues that one state of affairs can be better than ... More


Future Generations

Richard Kraut

in Against Absolute Goodness

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199844463
eISBN:
9780199919550
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199844463.003.0022
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This chapter examines the ethics of creating rather than destroying life. When a man and woman are thinking of having a child, they should consider not only what is good for them, or what is good for ... More


The Problem of Intelligibility Revisited

Richard Kraut

in Against Absolute Goodness

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199844463
eISBN:
9780199919550
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199844463.003.0029
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

According to Geach, Foot, and Thomson, it is unintelligible to say that pleasure is, quite simply, good. They hold that there is no useful role for absolute goodness to play in our thinking, but ... More


Moore's Argument against Relative Goodness

Richard Kraut

in Against Absolute Goodness

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199844463
eISBN:
9780199919550
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199844463.003.0012
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This chapter examines Moore's views about absolute and relative goodness. It concludes that nothing can be found in Moore's writings or offered on his behalf to cast doubt on our commonsense ... More


Euthanasia

Richard Kraut

in Against Absolute Goodness

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199844463
eISBN:
9780199919550
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199844463.003.0026
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

The intrinsic value of human life was cited in a 1990 decision of the U.S. Supreme Court (Cruzan v. Director, Missouri Department of Health) as one legitimate basis on which a state can forbid ... More


Goodness before and after Moore

Richard Kraut

in Against Absolute Goodness

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199844463
eISBN:
9780199919550
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199844463.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This chapter focuses on Moore's conception of goodness. It discusses how Moore was not the first to assert or assume the existence of absolute goodness. Nor was he the last. The concept of absolute ... More


Pleasure Reconsidered

Richard Kraut

in Against Absolute Goodness

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199844463
eISBN:
9780199919550
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199844463.003.0010
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

Chapter 3 offered an argument designed to make it plausible that there should be a positive answer to the initial question of this book: Are there things we should value because they are, quite ... More


Goodness and Variability

Richard Kraut

in Against Absolute Goodness

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199844463
eISBN:
9780199919550
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199844463.003.0013
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This chapter examines the notions of being good for someone and being absolutely good. Moore thinks that absolute goodness is a primitive notion—a concept that cannot be decomposed into ingredients ... More


Is Equality Absolutely Good?

Richard Kraut

in Against Absolute Goodness

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199844463
eISBN:
9780199919550
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199844463.003.0024
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

Some philosophers hold that it should be a matter of concern or regret that human beings are unequal in certain respects, and they think that we should strive, with the help of laws and political ... More


Biodiversity

Richard Kraut

in Against Absolute Goodness

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199844463
eISBN:
9780199919550
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199844463.003.0023
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This chapter examines the concept of biodiversity. It argues that the more confident we are that the extinction of a species would or might involve a loss of what is good for someone—especially for ... More


The Problem of Intelligibility

Richard Kraut

in Against Absolute Goodness

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199844463
eISBN:
9780199919550
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199844463.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

In Chapter 6 it was argued that we should not infer from something's being bad for someone that it is bad simpliciter. The example was this: smoking cigarettes might be bad for George, but it would ... More


Christian Theology and the Philosophers

Henry Chadwick

in Boethius: The Consolations of Music, Logic, Theology, and Philosophy

Published in print:
1990
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198265498
eISBN:
9780191682896
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198265498.003.0004
Subject:
Religion, Early Christian Studies, Philosophy of Religion

Five tractates of varying length dealing with questions of theology are transmitted by the manuscripts, often in association with the Consolation of Philosophy, but in many cases independently. The ... More


The Value of Persons and Other Creatures

Richard Kraut

in Against Absolute Goodness

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199844463
eISBN:
9780199919550
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199844463.003.0025
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This chapter argues that we do not need to make use of the concept of absolute goodness to speak meaningfully about the distinctive value or preciousness of human life. It is possible, instead, to ... More


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