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How Do We Know Necessary Truths?

Robert Hanna

in Kant, Science, and Human Nature

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2007
ISBN:
9780199285549
eISBN:
9780191713965
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199285549.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

This chapter provides a general framework for properly understanding Kant's famous modal-epistemological slogan, ‘reason has insight only into what it self-produces according to its own design,’ in ... More


The Possibility of Knowledge

Quassim Cassam

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199208319
eISBN:
9780191708992
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199208319.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

How is knowledge of the external world possible? How is knowledge of other minds possible? How is a priori knowledge possible? These are all examples of ‘how-possible’ questions in epistemology. In ... More


A Priori Knowledge

Albert Casullo

in The Oxford Handbook of Epistemology

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195130058
eISBN:
9780199833481
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195130057.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

In “A Priori Knowledge,” Albert Casullo asks whether there is a priori knowledge. He ultimately defines a priori knowledge as true belief with a priori justification, where a belief is a priori ... More


Visual Thinking in Mathematics

Marcus Giaquinto

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199285945
eISBN:
9780191713811
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199285945.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics

Visual thinking — visual imagination or perception of diagrams and symbol arrays, and mental operations on them — is omnipresent in mathematics. Is this visual thinking merely a psychological aid, ... More


A Priori Knowledge Revisited

Philip Kitcher

in New Essays on the A Priori

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199241279
eISBN:
9780191597107
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199241279.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Philip Kitcher defends his rejection of the thesis that mathematical knowledge is possible if such knowledge is a priori against a number of objections. His main line of argument is to suggest a ... More


Epistemological Preliminaries

Philip Kitcher

in The Nature of Mathematical Knowledge

Published in print:
1985
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195035414
eISBN:
9780199833368
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195035410.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics

A priori knowledge is knowledge that is independent of experience. We begin by trying to understand what this could mean.


The Nature of Mathematical Knowledge

Philip Kitcher

Published in print:
1985
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195035414
eISBN:
9780199833368
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195035410.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics

The Nature of Mathematical Knowledge develops and defends an empiricist approach to mathematical knowledge. After offering an account of a priori knowledge, it argues that none of the ... More


Externalism and Privileged Access Are Consistent

Anthony Brueckner

in Essays on Skepticism

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780199585861
eISBN:
9780191595332
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199585861.003.0023
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter contains the author's half of a point-counterpoint exchange with McKinsey in Blackwell's Contemporary Debates in Philosophy of Mind.


The Apriorist Program

Philip Kitcher

in The Nature of Mathematical Knowledge

Published in print:
1985
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195035414
eISBN:
9780199833368
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195035410.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics

Can proofs yield a priori knowledge? In this chapter, we consider the ways in which a priori knowledge might be transmitted, and how the transmission process might fail.


Knowledge

Colin McGinn

in Philosophical Provocations: 55 Short Essays

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9780262036191
eISBN:
9780262340090
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262036191.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, General

This chapter focuses on philosophical issues in knowledge. Tradition insists that knowledge falls into two broad classes: a priori knowledge and a posteriori knowledge. These categories are conceived ... More


The Epistemology of Constructive Empiricism

James Ladyman

in Images of Empiricism: Essays on Science and Stances, with a Reply from Bas C. van Fraassen

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780199218844
eISBN:
9780191711732
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199218844.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter questions what epistemic reason van Fraassen has for focusing on empirical adequacy. It contrasts van Fraassen's constructive empiricism with a pragmatic empiricism, where one gives ... More


Introduction: Transcendental Philosophy and Naturalism

Joel Smith and Peter Sullivan

in Transcendental Philosophy and Naturalism

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199608553
eISBN:
9780191729645
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199608553.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Some varieties of both transcendental philosophy and naturalism are distinguished, and a number of relations between them mapped. There is a discussion of transcendental idealism; transcendental ... More


Implicit Definition and the A Priori

Bob Hale and Crispin Wright

in New Essays on the A Priori

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199241279
eISBN:
9780191597107
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199241279.003.0012
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Bob Hale and Crispin Wright hold a meaning‐based approach to the explanation of a priori propositions. In their contribution, they develop the model of implicit definition, also suggested by ... More


Kant's transcendentalism

Penelope Maddy

in Second Philosophy: A Naturalistic Method

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780199273669
eISBN:
9780191706264
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199273669.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics

Kant provides the first example of a recurring methodological contrast that sets the Second Philosopher's approach into high relief. In his effort to explain the source of our a priori information ... More


Transcendental Philosophy and A Priori Knowledge: A Neo‐Kantian Perspective

Michael Friedman

in New Essays on the A Priori

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199241279
eISBN:
9780191597107
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199241279.003.0015
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

It seems that if a thinker in an argument arrives at an empirical conclusion, then some of the belief‐formation or reasoning principles she employs must be a priori if the reasoning is to be ... More


The Synthetic a Priori in Strawson's Kantianism

Barry Stroud

in Understanding Human Knowledge: Philosophical Essays

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199252138
eISBN:
9780191598500
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199252130.003.0014
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Deals with the project of demonstrating the possibility of conclusions with a distinctive metaphysical status, both in Kant's Critique of Pure Reason, which for its success depends on the ... More


Externalism and A Priori Knowledge of Empricial Facts

Bill Brewer

in New Essays on the A Priori

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199241279
eISBN:
9780191597107
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199241279.003.0017
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Bill Brewer explores a solution to a reductio ad absurdum argument template, one instance of which has the conclusion that we can know the proposition ‘someone has interacted with water’ a priori. ... More


Moral Knowledge and Experience 1

Sarah McGrath

in Oxford Studies in Metaethics: Volume 6

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199606375
eISBN:
9780191729478
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199606375.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter explores how one might attempt to reconcile two widely held ideas about morality that stand in prima facie tension with one another. The first idea is that moral knowledge — whatever ... More


What the Externalist Can Know A Priori

Paul A. Boghossian

in Knowing Our Own Minds

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199241408
eISBN:
9780191598692
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199241406.003.0010
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

Compatibilism combines an externalist view of mental content with a doctrine of privileged self‐knowledge. The essay presentsa reductio of compatibilism by arguing that if compatibilism were true, we ... More


A Priori Rules: Wittgenstein on the Normativity of Logic

Peter Railton

in New Essays on the A Priori

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199241279
eISBN:
9780191597107
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199241279.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Peter Railton explores a non‐meaning‐based approach to explaining the possibility of a priori knowledge, suggesting that we regard apparently a priori principles as rules, regulative of certain ... More


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