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Breakthroughs

Jussi Hanhimäki

in The Flawed Architect: Henry Kissinger and American Foreign Policy

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195172218
eISBN:
9780199849994
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195172218.003.0007
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

Through Pakistani Ambassador Agha Hilaly, Zhou Enlai, the Chinese premier was able to send his message to Kissinger regarding his government's willingness to have a direct meeting or discussions with ... More


From Geneva to Bandung

Gregg A. Brazinsky

in Winning the Third World: Sino-American Rivalry during the Cold War

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9781469631707
eISBN:
9781469631721
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/northcarolina/9781469631707.003.0004
Subject:
History, World Modern History

During the aftermath of the Korean War, the PRC continued seeking to strengthen its status in Asia, especially among other post-colonial states, but it hoped to do so in a more peaceful atmosphere ... More


Beijing, 1972

Yafeng Xia and Chris Tudda

in Transcending the Cold War: Summits, Statecraft, and the Dissolution of Bipolarity in Europe, 1970–1990

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
September 2016
ISBN:
9780198727507
eISBN:
9780191793646
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198727507.003.0003
Subject:
History, World Modern History, Political History

The Mao-Nixon summit was the first time that an American president had set foot in communist China. It followed twenty-two years of hostilities and confrontation between the two states and was a ... More


Countering Soviet Encirclement and Trying to Preserve Mao’s Legacy

John W. Garver

in China's Quest: The History of the Foreign Relations of the People's Republic of China

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780190261054
eISBN:
9780190261085
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190261054.003.0012
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

Zhou Enlai’s diplomatic skill in handling rapprochement with the United States won him praise in the Western media. Mao became suspicious. If Zhou outlived Mao with prestige intact, he might reverse ... More


Finale to the Hong Kong-style Cultural Revolution

Gary Ka-wai Cheung

in Hong Kong's Watershed: The 1967 Riots

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9789622090897
eISBN:
9789882207011
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Hong Kong University Press
DOI:
10.5790/hongkong/9789622090897.003.0010
Subject:
History, Asian History

The burning of the British diplomatic compound in Beijing strengthened the hand of the moderate faction led by Zhou Enlai. It also allowed secret talks between the left wing and the Hong Kong ... More


Heroic Models and Exemplary Leaders: Memorial Halls

Kirk A. Denton

in Exhibiting the Past: Historical Memory and the Politics of Museums in Postsocialist China

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
November 2016
ISBN:
9780824836870
eISBN:
9780824869748
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Hawai'i Press
DOI:
10.21313/hawaii/9780824836870.003.0008
Subject:
Society and Culture, Asian Studies

This chapter looks at two kinds of memorial halls: those devoted to upstanding average people (Lei Feng) and those devoted to leaders (Zhou Enlai and Deng Xiaoping). In the post-Mao era, the memorial ... More


Economic Crunch

Roderick MacFarquhar

in The Origins of the Cultural Revolution: Volume 3: The Coming of the Cataclysm 1961-1966

Published in print:
1997
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780192149978
eISBN:
9780191670084
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780192149978.003.0009
Subject:
History, Asian History

This chapter examines Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai's exposition of the economic burdens of his country at the Seven Thousand Cadres Conference. Zhou exposed three major problems, including China's ... More


The Bandung Era

John W. Garver

in China's Quest: The History of the Foreign Relations of the People's Republic of China

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780190261054
eISBN:
9780190261085
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190261054.003.0004
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

Following Stalin’s death, differences developed between Moscow and Beijing over the appropriate level of de-Stalinization. Mao welcomed a period of peace to concentrate on socialist ... More


The Smashing of the Gang of Four

Immanuel C. Y. Hsü

in China without mao: The Search for a New Order

Published in print:
1990
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195060560
eISBN:
9780199854370
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195060560.003.0001
Subject:
History, Asian History

1976 was a year of agony for China. Deep bereavement was felt in every corner of the land over the loss of three of its great leaders: Premier Zhou Enlai in January, Marshal Zhu De in July, and ... More


Emergency Measures

Roderick MacFarquhar

in The Origins of the Cultural Revolution: Volume 3: The Coming of the Cataclysm 1961-1966

Published in print:
1997
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780192149978
eISBN:
9780191670084
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780192149978.003.0003
Subject:
History, Asian History

This chapter examines the remedial measures taken by the Chinese government to address the catastrophic decline in grain output and its impact on people's food consumption during the 1960s. Based on ... More


From Isolation to Engagement: American Diplomacy and the Opening to China, 1969–1972

Jeremi Suri

in Foreign Policy Breakthroughs: Cases in Successful Diplomacy

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
August 2015
ISBN:
9780190226114
eISBN:
9780190256784
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190226114.003.0005
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

After more than two decades of estrangement, the opening of relations between the United States and China was one of the great diplomatic achievements of the late Cold War. American leaders pursued ... More


Conclusion

Anne Witchard

in Lao She in London

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9789888139606
eISBN:
9789882208643
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Hong Kong University Press
DOI:
10.5790/hongkong/9789888139606.003.0007
Subject:
Society and Culture, Asian Studies

After the international success of Rickshaw Boy, Lao She returned from the US to Mao's China in 1949 with high hopes. Welcomed back by his comrade from Chongqing days, Zhou Enlai, he was accorded the ... More


Roiling in Troubled Waters

Pang Yang Huei

in Strait Rituals: China, Taiwan, and the United States in the Taiwan Strait Crises, 1954-1958

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
September 2019
ISBN:
9789888208302
eISBN:
9789888455652
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Hong Kong University Press
DOI:
10.5790/hongkong/9789888208302.003.0007
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

After the Sino-US Ambassadorial Talks ceased in December 1957, further talks were suspended indefinitely. On 23 August 1958, the PRC again targeted artillery barrages on Quemoy and Matsu, igniting ... More


“Playing a Game,” Finding a “Lever”: Back Channels and Sino-American Rapprochement

Richard A. Moss

in Nixon's Back Channel to Moscow: Confidential Diplomacy and Détente

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9780813167879
eISBN:
9780813167909
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Kentucky
DOI:
10.5810/kentucky/9780813167879.003.0004
Subject:
History, Political History

The Sino-Soviet conflict, which first surfaced in the late 1950s and degenerated into armed border clashes in 1969, proved to be the main catalyst for Sino-American rapprochement. The China question ... More


China: In Times of Civil and Cold War

Takashi Yoshida

in The Making of "The Rape of Nanking": History and Memory in Japan, China, and the United States

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780195180961
eISBN:
9780199869633
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195180961.003.0006
Subject:
History, World Modern History

This chapter traces the history and memory of the Nanjing Massacre in China from 1945 to 1971. During the civil war, the main focus of both Nationalist and Communist governments was on defeating ... More


The Four Modernizations

Immanuel C. Y. Hsü

in China without mao: The Search for a New Order

Published in print:
1990
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195060560
eISBN:
9780199854370
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195060560.003.0004
Subject:
History, Asian History

If there was such a thing as a national consensus in China, it focused on the commitment to the Four Modernizations — of agriculture, industry, science and technology, and national defense. The ... More


The Race to the Summit, September 1971–May 1972

Craig Daigle

in The Limits of Detente: The United States, the Soviet Union, and the Arab-Israeli Conflict, 1969-1973

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
October 2013
ISBN:
9780300167139
eISBN:
9780300183344
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Yale University Press
DOI:
10.12987/yale/9780300167139.003.0007
Subject:
History, Middle East History

This chapter focuses on Richard Nixon's shocking revelations that had profound international implications. Nixon had a flair for the dramatic. Although he made most of his decisions in solitude on ... More


The Allure of Globalism: Continents, Colors, and the Cold War

Jeffrey James Byrne

in Mecca of Revolution: Algeria, Decolonization, and the Third World Order

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780199899142
eISBN:
9780190498979
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199899142.003.0005
Subject:
History, Political History, World Modern History

This chapter examines Third World international affairs from the perspective of independent Algeria’s new foreign policy apparatus. In the early and mid-1960s, many of the organizing themes of Third ... More


Rescuing the Panda from a Reforming China

E. Elena Songster

in Panda Nation: The Construction and Conservation of China's Modern Icon

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
April 2018
ISBN:
9780199393671
eISBN:
9780199393701
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199393671.003.0007
Subject:
History, Asian History

The year 1976 was monumental for China with the loss of important state leaders, and a tragic earthquake. Amidst all of the government’s active response to a panda starvation scare demonstrates the ... More


Panda Diplomacy: Animal Ambassadors and the Wild Population

E. Elena Songster

in Panda Nation: The Construction and Conservation of China's Modern Icon

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
April 2018
ISBN:
9780199393671
eISBN:
9780199393701
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199393671.003.0006
Subject:
History, Asian History

One of the most salient examples of the giant panda as a national symbol, the phenomenon of offering state-gift pandas to other countries, grew out of the end of the Cultural Revolution era. ... More


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