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Breakthroughs

Jussi Hanhimäki

in The Flawed Architect: Henry Kissinger and American Foreign Policy

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195172218
eISBN:
9780199849994
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195172218.003.0007
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

Through Pakistani Ambassador Agha Hilaly, Zhou Enlai, the Chinese premier was able to send his message to Kissinger regarding his government's willingness to have a direct meeting or discussions with ... More


Beijing, 1972

Yafeng Xia and Chris Tudda

in Transcending the Cold War: Summits, Statecraft, and the Dissolution of Bipolarity in Europe, 1970–1990

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
September 2016
ISBN:
9780198727507
eISBN:
9780191793646
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198727507.003.0003
Subject:
History, World Modern History, Political History

The Mao-Nixon summit was the first time that an American president had set foot in communist China. It followed twenty-two years of hostilities and confrontation between the two states and was a ... More


From Geneva to Bandung

Gregg A. Brazinsky

in Winning the Third World: Sino-American Rivalry during the Cold War

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9781469631707
eISBN:
9781469631721
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/northcarolina/9781469631707.003.0004
Subject:
History, World Modern History

During the aftermath of the Korean War, the PRC continued seeking to strengthen its status in Asia, especially among other post-colonial states, but it hoped to do so in a more peaceful atmosphere ... More


The Founder

Peter Martin

in China's Civilian Army: The Inside Story of China's Quest for Global Power

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
May 2021
ISBN:
9780197513705
eISBN:
9780197513736
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780197513705.003.0002
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

Just as J. Edgar Hoover molded the modern FBI, Zhou Enlai’s personality and policy choices continue to shape how China’s foreign ministry interacts with the outside world today. This chapter tells ... More


Countering Soviet Encirclement and Trying to Preserve Mao’s Legacy

John W. Garver

in China's Quest: The History of the Foreign Relations of the People's Republic of China

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780190261054
eISBN:
9780190261085
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190261054.003.0012
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

Zhou Enlai’s diplomatic skill in handling rapprochement with the United States won him praise in the Western media. Mao became suspicious. If Zhou outlived Mao with prestige intact, he might reverse ... More


Economic Crunch

Roderick MacFarquhar

in The Origins of the Cultural Revolution: Volume 3: The Coming of the Cataclysm 1961-1966

Published in print:
1997
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780192149978
eISBN:
9780191670084
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780192149978.003.0009
Subject:
History, Asian History

This chapter examines Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai's exposition of the economic burdens of his country at the Seven Thousand Cadres Conference. Zhou exposed three major problems, including China's ... More


Finale to the Hong Kong-style Cultural Revolution

Gary Ka-wai Cheung

in Hong Kong's Watershed: The 1967 Riots

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9789622090897
eISBN:
9789882207011
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Hong Kong University Press
DOI:
10.5790/hongkong/9789622090897.003.0010
Subject:
History, Asian History

The burning of the British diplomatic compound in Beijing strengthened the hand of the moderate faction led by Zhou Enlai. It also allowed secret talks between the left wing and the Hong Kong ... More


Heroic Models and Exemplary Leaders: Memorial Halls

Kirk A. Denton

in Exhibiting the Past: Historical Memory and the Politics of Museums in Postsocialist China

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
November 2016
ISBN:
9780824836870
eISBN:
9780824869748
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Hawai'i Press
DOI:
10.21313/hawaii/9780824836870.003.0008
Subject:
Society and Culture, Asian Studies

This chapter looks at two kinds of memorial halls: those devoted to upstanding average people (Lei Feng) and those devoted to leaders (Zhou Enlai and Deng Xiaoping). In the post-Mao era, the memorial ... More


US and Indian Policies in Direct Conflict, Part II: India’s “Area of Peace” as a Strategy to Contain US Intervention in Indo-China and Southeast Asia

Francine R. Frankel

in When Nehru Looked East: Origins of India-US Suspicion and India-China Rivalry

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
December 2020
ISBN:
9780190064341
eISBN:
9780190064372
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190064341.003.0007
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics, Comparative Politics

India asserted its influence at the Geneva Conference through the informal participation of Krishna Menon in behind-the-scenes discussions. The Geneva settlement reduced fears among smaller powers ... More


The Bandung Era

John W. Garver

in China's Quest: The History of the Foreign Relations of the People's Republic of China

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780190261054
eISBN:
9780190261085
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190261054.003.0004
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

Following Stalin’s death, differences developed between Moscow and Beijing over the appropriate level of de-Stalinization. Mao welcomed a period of peace to concentrate on socialist ... More


The Smashing of the Gang of Four

Immanuel C. Y. Hsü

in China without mao: The Search for a New Order

Published in print:
1990
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195060560
eISBN:
9780199854370
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195060560.003.0001
Subject:
History, Asian History

1976 was a year of agony for China. Deep bereavement was felt in every corner of the land over the loss of three of its great leaders: Premier Zhou Enlai in January, Marshal Zhu De in July, and ... More


Emergency Measures

Roderick MacFarquhar

in The Origins of the Cultural Revolution: Volume 3: The Coming of the Cataclysm 1961-1966

Published in print:
1997
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780192149978
eISBN:
9780191670084
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780192149978.003.0003
Subject:
History, Asian History

This chapter examines the remedial measures taken by the Chinese government to address the catastrophic decline in grain output and its impact on people's food consumption during the 1960s. Based on ... More


India-China War, 1962

Francine R. Frankel

in When Nehru Looked East: Origins of India-US Suspicion and India-China Rivalry

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
December 2020
ISBN:
9780190064341
eISBN:
9780190064372
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190064341.003.0008
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics, Comparative Politics

Opposing perspectives among key policymakers account for India’s failure to prepare for the possibility of an attack by China to enforce its claim lines on the northern border. Prime Minister Nehru, ... More


Roiling in Troubled Waters

Pang Yang Huei

in Strait Rituals: China, Taiwan, and the United States in the Taiwan Strait Crises, 1954-1958

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
September 2019
ISBN:
9789888208302
eISBN:
9789888455652
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Hong Kong University Press
DOI:
10.5790/hongkong/9789888208302.003.0007
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

After the Sino-US Ambassadorial Talks ceased in December 1957, further talks were suspended indefinitely. On 23 August 1958, the PRC again targeted artillery barrages on Quemoy and Matsu, igniting ... More


Korea: India’s “Unneutral” China Policy Stokes US Suspicions

Francine R. Frankel

in When Nehru Looked East: Origins of India-US Suspicion and India-China Rivalry

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
December 2020
ISBN:
9780190064341
eISBN:
9780190064372
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190064341.003.0005
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics, Comparative Politics

North Korea’s attack against South Korea evoked an immediate military response from the United States, under a UN command, to draw the line against communist expansion in Asia. Once the Chinese ... More


Chasing Respectability

Peter Martin

in China's Civilian Army: The Inside Story of China's Quest for Global Power

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
May 2021
ISBN:
9780197513705
eISBN:
9780197513736
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780197513705.003.0005
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

After the end of the Korean War, China sent its diplomats out on a charm offensive to win over global opinion, including sending delegations to the Geneva and Bandung Conferences, where its ... More


From Isolation to Engagement: American Diplomacy and the Opening to China, 1969–1972

Jeremi Suri

in Foreign Policy Breakthroughs: Cases in Successful Diplomacy

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
August 2015
ISBN:
9780190226114
eISBN:
9780190256784
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190226114.003.0005
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

After more than two decades of estrangement, the opening of relations between the United States and China was one of the great diplomatic achievements of the late Cold War. American leaders pursued ... More


Conclusion

Anne Witchard

in Lao She in London

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9789888139606
eISBN:
9789882208643
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Hong Kong University Press
DOI:
10.5790/hongkong/9789888139606.003.0007
Subject:
Society and Culture, Asian Studies

After the international success of Rickshaw Boy, Lao She returned from the US to Mao's China in 1949 with high hopes. Welcomed back by his comrade from Chongqing days, Zhou Enlai, he was accorded the ... More


Selective Integration

Peter Martin

in China's Civilian Army: The Inside Story of China's Quest for Global Power

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
May 2021
ISBN:
9780197513705
eISBN:
9780197513736
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780197513705.003.0008
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

After Henry Kissinger’s secret visit in 1971, China claimed its seat at the United Nations and set about learning how to deal with global institutions. The country’s entrance into the organization ... More


War by Other Means

Peter Martin

in China's Civilian Army: The Inside Story of China's Quest for Global Power

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
May 2021
ISBN:
9780197513705
eISBN:
9780197513736
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780197513705.003.0004
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

This chapter tells the story of how Zhou Enlai’s small group of Yan’an recruits was supplemented by foreign-language students and peasant soldiers to form a foreign ministry for the newly formed ... More


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