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Crimes Against Humanity

Michael Banton

in International Action against Racial Discrimination

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198280613
eISBN:
9780191598760
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198280610.003.0002
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

Action after World War I led to the creation of the League of Nations. During World War II, a War Crimes Commission was set up, which led to the proceedings before the Nuremberg Tribunal. The ... More


The Nuremberg Military Tribunals and the Origins of International Criminal Law

Kevin Jon Heller

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199554317
eISBN:
9780191728624
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199554317.001.0001
Subject:
Law, Public International Law, Criminal Law and Criminology

This book provides a comprehensive legal analysis of the twelve war crimes trials held in the American zone of occupation between 1946 and 1949, collectively known as the Nuremberg Military Tribunals ... More


The American Occupation: The New Constitution and the Tokyo War Crimes Trial

CHUSHICHI TSUZUKI

in The Pursuit of Power in Modern Japan 1825–1995

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198205890
eISBN:
9780191676840
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198205890.003.0016
Subject:
History, World Modern History, Political History

This chapter describes the new constitution and the Tokyo War Crimes Trial. It talks about the ‘unconditional’ surrender. It also presents some characteristics of the reform period of the American ... More


Building a Case against the War Criminals: Law and Investigation

Dean Aszkielowicz

in The Australian Pursuit of Japanese War Criminals, 1943-1957: From Foe to Friend

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
January 2018
ISBN:
9789888390724
eISBN:
9789888390427
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Hong Kong University Press
DOI:
10.5790/hongkong/9789888390724.003.0003
Subject:
History, Asian History

Long before the Second World War ended, the Allies were planning to prosecute Axis war criminals, including both those in positions of leadership and the perpetrators of individual crimes. There was ... More


Revising the Geneva Conventions, 1946–49: Synthesizing the Old and New Justice

Mark A. Lewis

in The Birth of the New Justice: The Internationalization of Crime and Punishment, 1919-1950

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
April 2014
ISBN:
9780199660285
eISBN:
9780191757716
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199660285.003.0009
Subject:
History, European Modern History, Political History

“New justice” ideas concerning the validity of post-war prosecution entered the revision of the Geneva Conventions in an expected way. The International Committee of the Red Cross was not willing ... More


The Birth of the New Justice: The Internationalization of Crime and Punishment, 1919-1950

Mark Lewis

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
April 2014
ISBN:
9780199660285
eISBN:
9780191757716
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199660285.001.0001
Subject:
History, European Modern History, Political History

The Birth of the New Justice explains the history of plans for ad hoc and permanent international criminal courts and new international criminal laws to repress aggressive war, war ... More


The Search for a Victim-Centered New Justice, 1942–1946: The World Jewish Congress and the Institute of Jewish Affairs 1

Mark A. Lewis

in The Birth of the New Justice: The Internationalization of Crime and Punishment, 1919-1950

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
April 2014
ISBN:
9780199660285
eISBN:
9780191757716
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199660285.003.0007
Subject:
History, European Modern History, Political History

Legal groups devoted to building international criminal law between 1919 and 1939 were rarely concerned with the rights of minorities or what are today called “human rights.” During World War Two, an ... More


From the IMT to the Zonal Trials

Kevin Jon Heller

in The Nuremberg Military Tribunals and the Origins of International Criminal Law

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199554317
eISBN:
9780191728624
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199554317.003.0002
Subject:
Law, Public International Law, Criminal Law and Criminology

This chapter focuses on the creation of the OCC, the organization responsible for overseeing the twelve Nuremberg Military Tribunal (NMT) trials. Section 1 discusses the approval of JCS 1023/10, the ... More


Public Schools in a Punitive Era

Lizbet Simmons

in Prison School: Educational Inequality and School Discipline in the Age of Mass Incarceration

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9780520281455
eISBN:
9780520293144
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520281455.003.0002
Subject:
Education, Educational Policy and Politics

This chapter first charts the complex dynamics that have pushed students from school and pulled them toward the criminal justice system, setting up the terms of a black prison diaspora that are ... More


The Facts of War: Cinematic Intelligence and the Office of Strategic Services

Simon Willmetts

in In Secrecy's Shadow: The OSS and CIA in Hollywood Cinema 1941-1979

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2018
ISBN:
9780748692996
eISBN:
9781474421935
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press
DOI:
10.3366/edinburgh/9780748692996.003.0001
Subject:
Film, Television and Radio, Film

This chapter tells the story of the OSS Field Photographic Unit (FPU) and its impact on American cinema and society. Led by the legendary Hollywood film director John Ford, the FPU produced training, ... More


The Birth of the New Justice at the Paris Peace Conference

Mark A. Lewis

in The Birth of the New Justice: The Internationalization of Crime and Punishment, 1919-1950

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
April 2014
ISBN:
9780199660285
eISBN:
9780191757716
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199660285.003.0003
Subject:
History, European Modern History, Political History

After World War One, jurists on the Commission on Responsibilities at the Paris Peace Conference were divided about the types of criminal penalties the Allies should impose on political and military ... More


The Apologist Role of National Courts: Legitimizing (Illegal) State Policy

Sharon Weill

in The Role of National Courts in Applying International Humanitarian Law

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
April 2014
ISBN:
9780199685424
eISBN:
9780191765643
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199685424.003.0002
Subject:
Law, Public International Law, Comparative Law

This chapter discusses the apologist role of courts, in which they serve as a legitimating agency for state action. The first case study shows how the Israeli High Court of Justice (HCJ) contributed ... More


Constructing Nuremberg

Kim Christian Priemel

in The Betrayal: The Nuremberg Trials and German Divergence

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
October 2016
ISBN:
9780199669752
eISBN:
9780191801020
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199669752.003.0003
Subject:
History, World Modern History, Cultural History

This chapter outlines the wartime debate among lawyers, politicians, and diplomats on how to deal with the unprecedented criminality of the Axis powers, notably of Nazi Germany. Both national and ... More


Epilogue

Mark A. Lewis

in The Birth of the New Justice: The Internationalization of Crime and Punishment, 1919-1950

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
April 2014
ISBN:
9780199660285
eISBN:
9780191757716
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199660285.003.0010
Subject:
History, European Modern History, Political History

Despite intellectual strides in the ideas of the “new justice” between 1919–1950 and their partial realization after 1945, prospects were weak at the start of the Cold War that international criminal ... More


The “At-Risk Youth Industry”

Lizbet Simmons

in Prison School: Educational Inequality and School Discipline in the Age of Mass Incarceration

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9780520281455
eISBN:
9780520293144
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520281455.003.0003
Subject:
Education, Educational Policy and Politics

This chapter explains how and why public schools and prisons have collaborated in the War on Crime era. It shows that the punitive shift in education catalyzes youth correctional vulnerability while ... More


United States Law and Policy on Transitional Justice: Principles, Politics, and Pragmatics

Zachary D. Kaufman

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
April 2016
ISBN:
9780190243494
eISBN:
9780190243524
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190243494.001.0001
Subject:
Law, Public International Law, Human Rights and Immigration

In this book Zachary D. Kaufman explores the U.S. government’s support for, or opposition to, certain transitional justice institutions. By first presenting an overview of transitional justice ... More


The Australian Pursuit of Japanese War Criminals, 1943-1957: From Foe to Friend

Dean Aszkielowicz

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
January 2018
ISBN:
9789888390724
eISBN:
9789888390427
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Hong Kong University Press
DOI:
10.5790/hongkong/9789888390724.001.0001
Subject:
History, Asian History

After the Second World War, the Australian military prosecuted almost a thousand alleged Japanese war criminals. These prosecutions were not only an attempt to punish Japan for its wartime ... More


Japan’s Imperial Veterans

Sheila A. Smith

in Intimate Rivals: Japanese Domestic Politics and a Rising China

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231167888
eISBN:
9780231538022
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231167888.003.0003
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

This chapter discusses the controversies surrounding the Yasukuni Shrine. Firstly, was the frustration among Japan's conservatives with what many saw as Chinese intervention in the effort to ... More


The Middle District and the War on Crime, 1968–1976

James M. Denham

in Fifty Years of Justice: A History of the U.S. District Court for the Middle District of Florida

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
January 2016
ISBN:
9780813060491
eISBN:
9780813050638
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Florida
DOI:
10.5744/florida/9780813060491.003.0005
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

This chapters covers the federal government’s “War on Crime” as initiated by the Johnson and continued by the Nixon Administration. The chapter also introduces the Nixon-Ford appointments to the ... More


Libya, the “Responsibility to Protect,” and the New Moral Minimum

Michael W. Doyle

in The Question of Intervention: John Stuart Mill and the Responsibility to Protect

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780300172638
eISBN:
9780300210781
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Yale University Press
DOI:
10.12987/yale/9780300172638.003.0004
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

The chapter examines the legal and doctrinal sources of the responsibility to protect people from war crimes, crimes against humanity, ethnic cleansing, and genocide. It explores its practice, most ... More


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