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Incarceration

Yoosun Park

in Facilitating Injustice: The Complicity of Social Workers in the Forced Removal and Incarceration of Japanese Americans, 1941-1946

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
November 2019
ISBN:
9780199765058
eISBN:
9780190081348
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199765058.003.0004
Subject:
Social Work, Social Policy

Hastily built on existing sites such as race tracks and fair grounds, the temporary Wartime Civil Control Administration (WCCA) detention camps in which the Nikkei were first incarcerated were unfit ... More


Choosing Sites, Building Camps

Connie Y. Chiang

in Nature Behind Barbed Wire: An Environmental History of the Japanese American Incarceration

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
September 2018
ISBN:
9780190842062
eISBN:
9780190909635
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190842062.003.0003
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

This chapter explores the process by which the War Relocation Authority selected camp sites, acquired the land, and built the camps, with close attention to how the natural world shaped selection and ... More


The Citizen-Soldier and the Citizen-Internee: Fraternity, Race, and American Nationhood, 1942–46

Holly Allen

in Forgotten Men and Fallen Women: The Cultural Politics of New Deal Narratives

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780801453571
eISBN:
9780801455841
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Cornell University Press
DOI:
10.7591/cornell/9780801453571.003.0007
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

This chapter examines the theme of hoodlumism as it relates to the rhetoric and practice of Japanese American internment. In the months leading up to internment, the American-born second generation ... More


“The Injustice of Internment”: Expanding Coalitions in the Internment Era

Sarah M. Griffith

in The Fight for Asian American Civil Rights: Liberal Protestant Activism, 1900-1950

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
September 2018
ISBN:
9780252041686
eISBN:
9780252050350
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Illinois Press
DOI:
10.5622/illinois/9780252041686.003.0006
Subject:
Sociology, Social Movements and Social Change

Following Japan’s attack on Pearl Harbor, liberal Protestants leveraged their influence among officials in the War Relocation Authority to launch their most powerful attack to date on anti-Japanese ... More


Selective Detention and Removal

Harry N. Scheiber and Jane L. Scheiber

in Bayonets in Paradise: Martial Law in Hawai'i during World War II

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
November 2016
ISBN:
9780824852887
eISBN:
9780824868727
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Hawai'i Press
DOI:
10.21313/hawaii/9780824852887.003.0009
Subject:
Society and Culture, Pacific Studies

In stark contrast to the mass removals and relocation of all Nikkei on the West Coast of the mainland, in Hawai`i the Army pursued a policy of selective detention only, and less than 1 percent of the ... More


Desert Agriculture

Connie Y. Chiang

in Nature Behind Barbed Wire: An Environmental History of the Japanese American Incarceration

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
September 2018
ISBN:
9780190842062
eISBN:
9780190909635
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190842062.003.0005
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

This chapter explores efforts to develop agricultural programs that would allow the camps to grow or raise most of the food consumed by Japanese Americans. This was a particularly important goal ... More


The Fate of the Detainees

Harry N. Scheiber and Jane L. Scheiber

in Bayonets in Paradise: Martial Law in Hawai'i during World War II

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
November 2016
ISBN:
9780824852887
eISBN:
9780824868727
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Hawai'i Press
DOI:
10.21313/hawaii/9780824852887.003.0011
Subject:
Society and Culture, Pacific Studies

While segregated at Tule Lake, detainees were further subjected to pro-Japanese gangs and an atmosphere of intimidation, leading many to renounce their American citizenship. Whether held in ... More


Resistance in Manzanar

Eileen H. Tamura

in In Defense of Justice: Joseph Kurihara and the Japanese American Struggle for Equality

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
April 2017
ISBN:
9780252037788
eISBN:
9780252095061
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Illinois Press
DOI:
10.5406/illinois/9780252037788.003.0005
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

This chapter details Kurihara's incarceration. Kurihara was among the Nikkei assigned to Manzanar, one of ten concentration camps for Nikkei, citizens and alien residents alike. Located at the base ... More


Forgotten Men and Fallen Women: The Cultural Politics of New Deal Narratives

Holly Allen

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780801453571
eISBN:
9780801455841
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Cornell University Press
DOI:
10.7591/cornell/9780801453571.001.0001
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

During the Great Depression and into the war years, the Roosevelt administration sought to transform the political, institutional, and social contours of the United States. One result of the New Deal ... More


Maintaining the Camps

Connie Y. Chiang

in Nature Behind Barbed Wire: An Environmental History of the Japanese American Incarceration

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
September 2018
ISBN:
9780190842062
eISBN:
9780190909635
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190842062.003.0004
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

This chapter focuses on the maintenance of the camps. It explores how wartime shortages and Japanese American labor protests intersected with harsh environmental conditions, complicating the WRA’s ... More


Outdoor Recreation

Connie Y. Chiang

in Nature Behind Barbed Wire: An Environmental History of the Japanese American Incarceration

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
September 2018
ISBN:
9780190842062
eISBN:
9780190909635
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190842062.003.0007
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

This chapter focuses on outdoor recreation and how Japanese Americans’ engagement with nature through leisure helped to strengthen their resolve and contribute to a sense of freedom. While they ... More


Removal and Displacement

Connie Y. Chiang

in Nature Behind Barbed Wire: An Environmental History of the Japanese American Incarceration

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
September 2018
ISBN:
9780190842062
eISBN:
9780190909635
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190842062.003.0002
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

This chapter examines how Japanese Americans’ involvement in natural resource industries (farming and fisheries) shaped the campaign for their removal from the Pacific Coast in the wake of Japan’s ... More


Asian Exclusion and Enforced Leisure

Annelise Heinz

in Mahjong: A Chinese Game and the Making of Modern American Culture

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
April 2021
ISBN:
9780190081799
eISBN:
9780190081829
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190081799.003.0008
Subject:
History, Cultural History

Despite their differences, Chinese and Japanese migrants and their American children occupied a shared location in an American racial framework that placed them outside the possibility of inclusion ... More


Environmental Patriotism

Connie Y. Chiang

in Nature Behind Barbed Wire: An Environmental History of the Japanese American Incarceration

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
September 2018
ISBN:
9780190842062
eISBN:
9780190909635
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190842062.003.0006
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

During the war, many natural resources and environmental activities were directly connected to the war effort. This chapter examines how Japanese Americans tried to show their patriotism and prove ... More


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