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Conflict between Patents and Access to Medicine

Holger Hestermeyer

in Human Rights and the WTO: The Case of Patents and Access to Medicines

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780199552177
eISBN:
9780191706936
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199552177.003.0004
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Public International Law

This chapter starts by demonstrating in economic terms that pharmaceutical patents result in higher prices in developing countries, thus constituting a barrier to access to medicine in those ... More


Who's Afraid of the WTO?

Kent Jones

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780195166163
eISBN:
9780199849819
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195166163.001.0001
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic Systems

Who is afraid of the WTO, the World Trade Organization? The list is long and varied. Many workers—and the unions that represent them—claim that WTO agreements increase import competition and threaten ... More


Financial Services and International Trade Agreements: The Development Dimension

Wendy Dobson

in A Handbook of International Trade in Services

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780199235216
eISBN:
9780191715624
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199235216.003.0007
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

This chapter notes the special role of financial services in an economy and distinguishes policy reform from domestic deregulation and capital account deregulation. The impacts of policy reform and ... More


What Role is there for Regional International Law in the Interpretation of the WTO Agreements?

Isabelle Van Damme

in Regional Trade Agreements and the WTO Legal System

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780199206995
eISBN:
9780191695674
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199206995.003.0023
Subject:
Law, Public International Law

This chapter examines the potential application of regional international law in interpreting World Trade Organization (WTO) agreements. It describes the treaty interpretation practice of WTO panels ... More


Why Countries Trade (and Join the WTO)

Kent Jones

in Who's Afraid of the WTO?

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780195166163
eISBN:
9780199849819
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195166163.003.0003
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic Systems

Chapter 2 presents the underlying economic principle of the WTO—the gains from trade—and how the WTO agreement translated that principle into an international set of trade policy rules. It also ... More


Harmonization of Standardization and Certification

Junji Nakagawa

in International Harmonization of Economic Regulation

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199604661
eISBN:
9780191731679
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199604661.003.0004
Subject:
Law, Public International Law

This chapter analyzes international harmonization of product standards and accreditation (section 1) and of food safety standards (section 2), which are conducted by different standard setting bodies ... More


Facilitating Coherent Application of WTO Law Within and Outside the Organization: Investment Regime as an Example

Tsai-yu Lin

in International Economic Law and Governance: Essays in Honour of Mitsuo Matsushita

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9780198778257
eISBN:
9780191823763
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198778257.003.0018
Subject:
Law, Public International Law

WTO agreements are commonly referred to or incorporated in trade and investment agreements and investor–state arbitration. This chapter argues that a greater coherence in the application of WTO ... More


Enforcing WTO Law

Antonello Tancredi

in The Enforcement of EU Law and Values: Ensuring Member States' Compliance

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
April 2017
ISBN:
9780198746560
eISBN:
9780191808487
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198746560.003.0021
Subject:
Law, EU Law, Constitutional and Administrative Law

This chapter provides a brief analysis of the enforcement tools foreseen in the WTO dispute settlement mechanism. It focuses in particular on some of the peculiarities which differentiate them from ... More


The Right to Food and Trade in Agriculture

Christine Breining-Kaufmann

in Human Rights and International Trade

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780199285822
eISBN:
9780191700378
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199285822.003.0020
Subject:
Law, Public International Law

This chapter examines possible options to reconcile the goals of human rights instruments providing a right to food, and in particular food security, with WTO agreements, in particular the AoA. It ... More


Are the Competition Rules in the WTO Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights Adequate?

Frederick M. Abbott

in Reforming the World Trading System: Legitimacy, Efficiency, and Democratic Governance

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780199282623
eISBN:
9780191700224
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199282623.003.0016
Subject:
Law, Public International Law

This chapter examines whether the competition rules in the World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) are adequate or not. The ... More


Subsidies Regulation Beyond the WTO: Substance, Procedure and Policy Space in the ‘New Generation’ EU Trade Agreements

Leonardo Borlini

in THE GLOBAL COMMUNITY YEARBOOK OF INTERNATIONAL LAW AND JURISPRUDENCE 2016

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780190848194
eISBN:
9780190848217
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190848194.003.0008
Subject:
Law, Public International Law

An increasingly important aspect of EU trade policy since the lifting of its self-imposed moratorium on preferential trade agreements (PTAs) has been the inclusion of WTO+ provisions on subsidies in ... More


SME Participation in Government Procurement Markets: Legal and Policy Considerations under the WTO Agreement on Government Procurement and the UNCITRAL Model Law on Public Procurement

Caroline Nicholas and Anna Caroline Müller

in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in International Economic Law

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
June 2017
ISBN:
9780198795650
eISBN:
9780191836961
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198795650.003.0006
Subject:
Law, Public International Law

This chapter considers policy measures to increase the participation of SMEs in government procurement and their potential economic and social policy benefits. It considers the scale and importance ... More


Leveraging Trade Facilitation Reforms for Increased SME Competitiveness

Arancha González

in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in International Economic Law

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
June 2017
ISBN:
9780198795650
eISBN:
9780191836961
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198795650.003.0003
Subject:
Law, Public International Law

This publication analyses various constraints preventing small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in developing countries from tapping into global value chains. It highlights that the time and costs ... More


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