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The naming game: governance of the Domain Name System

Lee A. Bygrave, Susan Schiavetta, Hilde Thunem, Annebeth B. Lange, and Edward Phillips

in Internet Governance: Infrastructure and Institutions

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780199561131
eISBN:
9780191721199
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199561131.003.0006
Subject:
Business and Management, Information Technology, Political Economy

This chapter explicates the Domain Name System and the governance mechanisms attached to it. The first part of the chapter introduces the basic elements of the system. The second part of the chapter ... More


Other ICANN Consensus Policies

Torsten Bettinger

in Domain Name Law And Practice: An International Handbook

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
March 2021
ISBN:
9780199663163
eISBN:
9780191932748
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199663163.003.0047
Subject:
Law, Intellectual Property, IT, and Media Law

In addition to the Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy (UDRP), ICANN has established eight other consensus policies which apply to the gTLD spaces under its purview. Consensus policies ... More


Preliminary Considerations

Jaani Riordan

in The Liability of Internet Intermediaries

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
March 2021
ISBN:
9780198719779
eISBN:
9780191927416
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198719779.003.0003
Subject:
Law, Intellectual Property, IT, and Media Law

This chapter discusses five issues which commonly arise before the commencement of proceedings in disputes involving internet intermediaries. Broadly, these issues relate to the identification and ... More


The European Top-Level Domain ‘.eu’

Torsten Bettinger

in Domain Name Law And Practice: An International Handbook

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
March 2021
ISBN:
9780199663163
eISBN:
9780191932748
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199663163.003.0007
Subject:
Law, Intellectual Property, IT, and Media Law

In February 2000, as part of the eEurope Initiative, the European Commission commenced public consultation on the introduction of a new ccTLD, ‘.eu’. Its aim was to create a clearly recognizable ... More


Belgium (‘.be’)

Alain Strowel and Benjamin Docquir

in Domain Name Law And Practice: An International Handbook

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
March 2021
ISBN:
9780199663163
eISBN:
9780191932748
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199663163.003.0012
Subject:
Law, Intellectual Property, IT, and Media Law

The trademark owner can also request the President of the Court to appoint a sequestrator or trustee to store the infringing items until the Commercial Court has decided on the merits of the case, ... More


Brazil (‘.br’)

Grau-Kunt Karin and Bernardo Guitton Brauer

in Domain Name Law And Practice: An International Handbook

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
March 2021
ISBN:
9780199663163
eISBN:
9780191932748
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199663163.003.0013
Subject:
Law, Intellectual Property, IT, and Media Law

Despite doctrinal discussions addressing the legal characterization of property law and intellectual assets, the Brazilian Constitutional Court has characterized the essential property right in a ... More


Canada (‘.ca’)

Eric Macramalla

in Domain Name Law And Practice: An International Handbook

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
March 2021
ISBN:
9780199663163
eISBN:
9780191932748
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199663163.003.0014
Subject:
Law, Intellectual Property, IT, and Media Law

Traders need not register their trade-marks to enjoy proprietary rights in their marks, as trade-marks may also enjoy common law protection. However, there are substantial benefits to seeking a ... More


Czech Republic (‘.cz’)

Radka MacGregor Pelikánová and Ladislav Jakl

in Domain Name Law And Practice: An International Handbook

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
March 2021
ISBN:
9780199663163
eISBN:
9780191932748
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199663163.003.0015
Subject:
Law, Intellectual Property, IT, and Media Law

Czech national law belongs to the Continental (Civil) law family and, similar to other national laws sharing the Roman tradition, there is a hierarchy of legal sources and norms with a strong drive ... More


Denmark (‘.dk’)

Knud Wallberg

in Domain Name Law And Practice: An International Handbook

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
March 2021
ISBN:
9780199663163
eISBN:
9780191932748
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199663163.003.0016
Subject:
Law, Intellectual Property, IT, and Media Law

The provisions of the laws on the exclusive rights in commercial designations and unfair competition law protection of signs can be applied separately or alongside each other without difficulty. ... More


France (‘.fr’)

David Taylor

in Domain Name Law And Practice: An International Handbook

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
March 2021
ISBN:
9780199663163
eISBN:
9780191932748
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199663163.003.0017
Subject:
Law, Intellectual Property, IT, and Media Law

For a trade mark to enjoy protection in France, two substantive requirements must be met: first, the trade mark must be capable of being represented graphically, and secondly, the trade mark must ... More


Germany (‘.de’)

Torsten Bettinger

in Domain Name Law And Practice: An International Handbook

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
March 2021
ISBN:
9780199663163
eISBN:
9780191932748
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199663163.003.0018
Subject:
Law, Intellectual Property, IT, and Media Law

Disputes arising under trademark and competition law owing to the registration and use of domain names have become commonplace in German courts. Following a phase of widespread legal uncertainty, ... More


Israel (‘.il’)

Ellen B Shankman

in Domain Name Law And Practice: An International Handbook

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
March 2021
ISBN:
9780199663163
eISBN:
9780191932748
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199663163.003.0023
Subject:
Law, Intellectual Property, IT, and Media Law

In Israel, trademarks are governed by both legislation and by common law. Rights are created by the first to file or use within the jurisdiction. Registration is not mandatory to establish rights ... More


Japan (‘.jp’)

Makoto Hattori and Nodoka Nakamura

in Domain Name Law And Practice: An International Handbook

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
March 2021
ISBN:
9780199663163
eISBN:
9780191932748
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199663163.003.0025
Subject:
Law, Intellectual Property, IT, and Media Law

Two types of trademarks are protected under Japanese law: (1) trade and service marks, protected by the Trademark Act and the Unfair Competition Prevention Act1 (hereinafter the UCA); and (2) ... More


Netherlands (‘.nl’)

Adonna Alkema

in Domain Name Law And Practice: An International Handbook

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
March 2021
ISBN:
9780199663163
eISBN:
9780191932748
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199663163.003.0026
Subject:
Law, Intellectual Property, IT, and Media Law

In the Netherlands, there is no legislation dealing with the registration and use of domain names. Domain name conflicts are therefore decided on the basis of existing laws, such as laws regarding ... More


Portugal (‘.pt’)

Alexandre L Dias Pereira and Carla Valério

in Domain Name Law And Practice: An International Handbook

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
March 2021
ISBN:
9780199663163
eISBN:
9780191932748
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199663163.003.0030
Subject:
Law, Intellectual Property, IT, and Media Law

In Portugal, several intellectual property (IP) rights are protected, including both trademarks and logotypes. Personal names, as well as literary and artistic names, company names and names of ... More


Russian Federation (‘.ru’ and ‘.рф’)

Iouri Kobiako von Gamm and Natalia Gulyaeva

in Domain Name Law And Practice: An International Handbook

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
March 2021
ISBN:
9780199663163
eISBN:
9780191932748
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199663163.003.0032
Subject:
Law, Intellectual Property, IT, and Media Law

To date, the Russian legislature has not adopted any specific statutory provisions on domain law, and therefore conflicts arising from domain names containing third-party trademarks are governed by ... More


Sweden (‘.se’)

Petter Rindforth

in Domain Name Law And Practice: An International Handbook

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
March 2021
ISBN:
9780199663163
eISBN:
9780191932748
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199663163.003.0036
Subject:
Law, Intellectual Property, IT, and Media Law

Trademark protection in Sweden can be obtained by use, by a national Swedish trademark registration, by a Madrid Protocol registration covering Sweden, and/or by a Community Trademark registration.


Switzerland (‘.ch’)

Gallus Joller

in Domain Name Law And Practice: An International Handbook

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
March 2021
ISBN:
9780199663163
eISBN:
9780191932748
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199663163.003.0037
Subject:
Law, Intellectual Property, IT, and Media Law

In Switzerland, the protection of distinctive signs is governed by the laws on trademarks, company names, names, and unfair competition. The following sets out these legal bases and the signs they ... More


United States Of America (‘.us’)

William R Towns

in Domain Name Law And Practice: An International Handbook

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
March 2021
ISBN:
9780199663163
eISBN:
9780191932748
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199663163.003.0040
Subject:
Law, Intellectual Property, IT, and Media Law

The standard for trademark infringement in the United States is ‘likelihood of confusion’. Under this standard trademark infringement occurs when, dependent on the attendant circumstances, two ... More


A Taxonomy of Internet Intermediaries

Jaani Riordan

in The Liability of Internet Intermediaries

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
March 2021
ISBN:
9780198719779
eISBN:
9780191927416
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198719779.003.0002
Subject:
Law, Intellectual Property, IT, and Media Law

Overview. This chapter introduces the concept of an internet intermediary and situates their activities within the layered, modular network architecture of the internet. The services considered in ... More


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