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The Question of Racial Mixing in the American Possessions: National Norms and Local Resistance

Paul Schor

in Counting Americans: How the US Census Classified the Nation

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
July 2017
ISBN:
9780199917853
eISBN:
9780190670856
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199917853.003.0016
Subject:
History, American History: 19th Century, American History: 20th Century

This chapter discusses the imposition of the US system of racial classification in the US Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico, and Hawaii. The original use in certain US territories of a “mixed” racial ... More


The Slow Integration of Indians into US Population Statistics in the Nineteenth Century

Paul Schor

in Counting Americans: How the US Census Classified the Nation

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
July 2017
ISBN:
9780199917853
eISBN:
9780190670856
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199917853.003.0012
Subject:
History, American History: 19th Century, American History: 20th Century

This chapter discusses the integration of Native Americans into the US census. Since its creation, the census separated the inhabitants of the territory controlled by the United States into three ... More


New Asian Races, New Mixtures, and the “Mexican” Race: Interest in “Minor Races”

Paul Schor

in Counting Americans: How the US Census Classified the Nation

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
July 2017
ISBN:
9780199917853
eISBN:
9780190670856
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199917853.003.0017
Subject:
History, American History: 19th Century, American History: 20th Century

This chapter discusses changes in racial categorization in the early twentieth century with respect to the US census. Whenever there was a question of the racial classification of new populations, ... More


From Statistics by Country of Birth to the System of National Origins

Paul Schor

in Counting Americans: How the US Census Classified the Nation

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
July 2017
ISBN:
9780199917853
eISBN:
9780190670856
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199917853.003.0018
Subject:
History, American History: 19th Century, American History: 20th Century

This chapter discusses changes in the categories of ethnicity and immigration in the US census. From the beginning of the twentieth century to the 1930s, statistics on immigration and ethnicity took ... More


Ethnic Marketing of Population Statistics

Paul Schor

in Counting Americans: How the US Census Classified the Nation

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
July 2017
ISBN:
9780199917853
eISBN:
9780190670856
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199917853.003.0021
Subject:
History, American History: 19th Century, American History: 20th Century

This chapter discusses the Census Bureau’s external relations. It covers the publicity programs directed specifically toward ethnic groups; the agency’s use of marketing techniques for targeted ... More


Introduction

Paul Schor

in Counting Americans: How the US Census Classified the Nation

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
July 2017
ISBN:
9780199917853
eISBN:
9780190670856
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199917853.003.0001
Subject:
History, American History: 19th Century, American History: 20th Century

This introductory chapter provides an overview of the book’s main themes. This book examines the population categories constructed and utilized every ten years by the US census. Approaching these ... More


Counting Americans: How the US Census Classified the Nation

Paul Schor

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
July 2017
ISBN:
9780199917853
eISBN:
9780190670856
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199917853.001.0001
Subject:
History, American History: 19th Century, American History: 20th Century

By telling how the US census classified and divided Americans by race and origin from the founding of the United States to World War II, this book shows how public statistics have been used to create ... More


Immigration, Nativism, and Statistics (1850–1900)

Paul Schor

in Counting Americans: How the US Census Classified the Nation

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
July 2017
ISBN:
9780199917853
eISBN:
9780190670856
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199917853.003.0014
Subject:
History, American History: 19th Century, American History: 20th Century

This chapter discusses the emergence of questions on national origins and foreign birth in the censuses of 1850 to 1900 in the context of rising nativism. The 1820 census first introduced the ... More


The Disappearance of the “Mulatto” as the End of Inquiry into the Composition of the Black Population of the United States

Paul Schor

in Counting Americans: How the US Census Classified the Nation

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
July 2017
ISBN:
9780199917853
eISBN:
9780190670856
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199917853.003.0015
Subject:
History, American History: 19th Century, American History: 20th Century

This chapter discusses changes in the categorization of blacks and mulattoes at the beginning of the twentieth century. In 1900, for the first time since blacks had been individually enumerated, the ... More


Resurrecting the Identities of Lynch Victims

Amy Kate Bailey and Stewart E. Tolnay

in Lynched: The Victims of Southern Mob Violence

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
January 2016
ISBN:
9781469620879
eISBN:
9781469623092
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/northcarolina/9781469620879.003.0002
Subject:
History, African-American History

A major obstacle for scholars interested in studying the lynching era has been the frustrating lack of information about the thousands of victims who were claimed by the lethal practice. The various ... More


Introduction: New Destinations

Simone Delerme

in Latino Orlando: Suburban Transformation and Racial Conflict

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
September 2020
ISBN:
9780813066257
eISBN:
9780813058412
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Florida
DOI:
10.5744/florida/9780813066257.003.0001
Subject:
Society and Culture, Latin American Studies

The introduction provides the reader with essential background information on Puerto Rican and Latino patterns of migration and the recent demographic shifts. The chapter describes the research ... More


The Creation of the Federal Census by the Constitution of the United States: A Political Instrument

Paul Schor

in Counting Americans: How the US Census Classified the Nation

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
July 2017
ISBN:
9780199917853
eISBN:
9780190670856
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199917853.003.0002
Subject:
History, American History: 19th Century, American History: 20th Century

This chapter discusses the creation of the federal census. The US census was created to put into operation the system of checks and balances. It attributed to each state through apportionment, a ... More


The Chinese and Japanese in the Census: Nationalities That Are Also Races

Paul Schor

in Counting Americans: How the US Census Classified the Nation

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
July 2017
ISBN:
9780199917853
eISBN:
9780190670856
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199917853.003.0013
Subject:
History, American History: 19th Century, American History: 20th Century

This chapter discusses the integration of Chinese and Japanese into the US census. The American census added a new race it termed “Chinese” to its questionnaires beginning in 1870 and “Japanese” in ... More


Census Data for 1850 and 1860 and the Defeat of the South

Paul Schor

in Counting Americans: How the US Census Classified the Nation

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
July 2017
ISBN:
9780199917853
eISBN:
9780190670856
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199917853.003.0008
Subject:
History, American History: 19th Century, American History: 20th Century

This chapter discusses how census data for 1850 and 1860 contributed to the military defeat of the South in the Civil War. For instance, the main innovation of the 1860 census was the cartographic ... More


From “Mulatto” to the “One Drop Rule” (1870–1900)

Paul Schor

in Counting Americans: How the US Census Classified the Nation

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
July 2017
ISBN:
9780199917853
eISBN:
9780190670856
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199917853.003.0011
Subject:
History, American History: 19th Century, American History: 20th Century

This chapter discusses changes in racial categories applied to African Americans in the censuses from 1870 to 1900. At the time of the 1870 census, the schedules offered five choices of “color”: ... More


Modernization, Standardization, and Internationalization: From the Censuses of J. C. G. Kennedy (1850 and 1860) to the First Census of Francis A. Walker (1870)

Paul Schor

in Counting Americans: How the US Census Classified the Nation

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
July 2017
ISBN:
9780199917853
eISBN:
9780190670856
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199917853.003.0009
Subject:
History, American History: 19th Century, American History: 20th Century

This chapter discusses developments surrounding the censuses of 1850, 1860, and 1870. Topics covered include the first international statistical congress in Brussels in 1853; efforts to bring ... More


From Slavery to Freedom: The Future of the Black Race or Racial Mixing as Degeneration

Paul Schor

in Counting Americans: How the US Census Classified the Nation

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
July 2017
ISBN:
9780199917853
eISBN:
9780190670856
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199917853.003.0010
Subject:
History, American History: 19th Century, American History: 20th Century

This chapter discusses changes introduced by three Reconstruction-era amendments and their consequences for the census. These amendments include the suppression of slavery by the Thirteenth Amendment ... More


Monitoring and Evaluation Research: Tools and Evidence for Understanding Social Marketing Performance During and After Implementation

W. Douglas Evans

in Social Marketing Research for Global Public Health: Methods and Technologies

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780199757398
eISBN:
9780190226022
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199757398.003.0006
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

Social marketing monitoring and evaluation aim to determine the effectiveness of campaigns in achieving their communication and behavioral outcome objectives. They seek to answer two questions: Did ... More


The Census of 1840: Science, Politics, and “Insanity” of Free Blacks

Paul Schor

in Counting Americans: How the US Census Classified the Nation

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
July 2017
ISBN:
9780199917853
eISBN:
9780190670856
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199917853.003.0004
Subject:
History, American History: 19th Century, American History: 20th Century

This chapter discusses developments relating to the 1840 census. In the course of the 1810s, gazettes and popular almanacs full of numerical data appeared, and the teaching of arithmetic in the ... More


Women as Census Workers and as Relays in the Field

Paul Schor

in Counting Americans: How the US Census Classified the Nation

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
July 2017
ISBN:
9780199917853
eISBN:
9780190670856
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199917853.003.0020
Subject:
History, American History: 19th Century, American History: 20th Century

This chapter discusses the role of women in the history of the US census. Beginning with the 1920 census, and with women gaining the right to vote that same year, the Census Bureau began devoting ... More


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