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In the Company of Killers: Crime, Recruitment, and the Birth of the National Movement in the South Marmara

Ryan Gingeras

in Sorrowful Shores: Violence, Ethnicity, and the End of the Ottoman Empire 1912-1923

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780199561520
eISBN:
9780191721076
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199561520.003.0004
Subject:
History, European Modern History

This chapter presents an account of the construction of the national resistance movement led by Mustafa Kemal (Atatürk) in 1919. It locates the origins of this armed movement during the First World ... More


Muslim Communism? The Turkish War of Independence

M. Şükrü Hanioğlu

in Atatürk: An Intellectual Biography

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9780691175829
eISBN:
9781400885572
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691175829.003.0006
Subject:
History, European Modern History

This chapter focuses on the Turkish War of Independence. Fighting between 1919 and 1922 on two principal fronts—against the British-backed Greeks in the West and the unsupported Armenians in the ... More


Sorrowful Shores: Violence, Ethnicity, and the End of the Ottoman Empire 1912-1923

Ryan Gingeras

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780199561520
eISBN:
9780191721076
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199561520.001.0001
Subject:
History, European Modern History

The birth of the Turkish Republic was an event borne out of immense bloodshed and carnage. During the decade leading up to the end of the Ottoman Empire and the ascendancy of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, ... More


Downfall and Repudiation

Ryan Gingeras

in Fall of the Sultanate: The Great War and the End of the Ottoman Empire 1908–1922

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
April 2016
ISBN:
9780199676071
eISBN:
9780191755576
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199676071.003.0007
Subject:
History, European Modern History

This chapter summarizes the final two years of the First World War and the political consequences of empire’s defeat in Anatolia. In the four years that followed the Ottoman surrender, two competing ... More


Fall of the Sultanate: The Great War and the End of the Ottoman Empire 1908–1922

Ryan Gingeras

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
April 2016
ISBN:
9780199676071
eISBN:
9780191755576
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199676071.001.0001
Subject:
History, European Modern History

The collapse of the Ottoman Empire was by no means a singular event. After six hundred years of ruling over the peoples of North Africa, the Balkans, and the Middle East, a series of wars, ... More


Preference in Paris

Christina Luke

in A Pearl in Peril: Heritage and Diplomacy in Turkey

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
January 2019
ISBN:
9780190498870
eISBN:
9780190498894
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190498870.003.0003
Subject:
History, Ancient History / Archaeology

The pursuit of knowledge, cultural relations and diplomatic practice are discussed in this chapter in the context of the Treaty of Sèvres, the framing the League of Nations, and the role of early ... More


The Positivist Universalism and Republicanism of the Young Turks

Banu Turnaoğlu

in The Formation of Turkish Republicanism

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
January 2018
ISBN:
9780691172743
eISBN:
9781400885220
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691172743.003.0005
Subject:
History, Middle East History

This chapter illustrates how the Parisian positivist Young Turks conceived humanity in light of a universal world history that progressed through the application of developmental laws. They sought to ... More


Hogan’s Heroes

Ozan O. Varol

in The Democratic Coup d'État

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
August 2017
ISBN:
9780190626013
eISBN:
9780190626051
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190626013.003.0004
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics, Democratization

This chapter defines the key terms used throughout the book: military, military coup, and popular revolution. The military, also known as the armed forces, is the state institution responsible for ... More


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