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The Space of Crime

Ned Schantz

in Gossip, Letters, Phones: The Scandal of Female Networks in Film and Literature

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780195335910
eISBN:
9780199868902
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195335910.003.0007
Subject:
Literature, Film, Media, and Cultural Studies, Women's Literature

This chapter considers how a cultural insistence on confined space emerges in direct proportion to the manifest range or intensity of female networking. Beginning with the tradition of the locked ... More


Turing's Test

Donald Davidson

in Problems of Rationality

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
August 2004
ISBN:
9780198237549
eISBN:
9780191601378
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198237545.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, General

Finds fault with Turing's answer to the question, ‘Can a computer think’? Turing believed that if the answers given by a computer and a person leave an interpreter unable to discriminate between ... More


The Turing Test: The Cultural Life of an Idea

Simone Natale

in Deceitful Media: Artificial Intelligence and Social Life after the Turing Test

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
February 2021
ISBN:
9780190080365
eISBN:
9780190080402
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190080365.003.0002
Subject:
History, Cultural History

The relationship between AI and deception was initially explored by Alan Turing, who famously proposed in 1950 a practical test addressing the question “Can machines think?” This chapter argues that ... More


ENGINEERING MORALITY

Wendell Wallach and Colin Allen

in Moral Machines: Teaching Robots Right from Wrong

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780195374049
eISBN:
9780199871889
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195374049.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

A framework is provided for understanding the trajectory toward increasingly sophisticated artificial moral agents, emphasizing two dimensions: autonomy and sensitivity to morally relevant facts. ... More


CAN (RO)BOTS REALLY BE MORAL?

Wendell Wallach and Colin Allen

in Moral Machines: Teaching Robots Right from Wrong

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780195374049
eISBN:
9780199871889
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195374049.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

How closely could artificial agents, lacking human qualities such as consciousness and emotions, come to being considered moral agents? Chapter 4 begins by discussing the issue of whether a “mere” ... More


How to Create a Bot: Programming Deception at the Loebner Prize Competition

Simone Natale

in Deceitful Media: Artificial Intelligence and Social Life after the Turing Test

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
February 2021
ISBN:
9780190080365
eISBN:
9780190080402
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190080365.003.0006
Subject:
History, Cultural History

In 1991, American inventor and philanthropist Hugh Loebner funded the launch of a competition aimed at recreating the conditions of the Turing test to assess the success of conversational programs in ... More


The Quest for Intelligent Machines

Arlindo Oliveira

in The Digital Mind: How Science is Redefining Humanity

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9780262036030
eISBN:
9780262338394
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262036030.003.0005
Subject:
Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence

This chapter addresses the question of whether a computer can become intelligent and how to test for that possibility. It introduces the idea of the Turing test, a test developed to determine, in an ... More


Victorian Fictions of Computational Creativity

Megan Ward

in AI Narratives: A History of Imaginative Thinking about Intelligent Machines

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
April 2020
ISBN:
9780198846666
eISBN:
9780191881817
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198846666.003.0007
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

In designing his foundational test of AI, Alan Turing refers to Ada’s Lovelace’s Victorian pronouncement that a machine cannot be intelligent because it only does what it is programmed to do. This ... More


Learning Action-Perception Cycles in Robotics: A Question of Representations and Embodiment

Jeannette Bohg and Danica Kragic

in The Pragmatic Turn: Toward Action-Oriented Views in Cognitive Science

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
September 2016
ISBN:
9780262034326
eISBN:
9780262333290
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262034326.003.0018
Subject:
Neuroscience, History of Neuroscience

Since the 1950s, robotics research has sought to build a general-purpose agent capable of autonomous, open-ended interaction with realistic, unconstrained environments. Cognition is perceived to be ... More


Networks and the Problem of Panpsychism

Cyriel M. A. Pennartz

in The Brain's Representational Power: On Consciousness and the Integration of Modalities

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780262029315
eISBN:
9780262330121
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262029315.003.0005
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience

A crucial deficiency of network models is their inability to modally identify or recognize the inputs they receive. To begin solving this problem, we ask to what extent current models resemble ... More


Can Computers Really Think?

Levesque Hector J.

in Thinking as Computation: A First Course

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262016995
eISBN:
9780262301411
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262016995.003.0012
Subject:
Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence

This chapter explores the philosophical question of whether computers can really think. It considers the Turing Test and Searle's Chinese Room argument. It suggests that regardless of one's position ... More


Straight, Gay, or Binary?: Hal Comes Out of the Cybernetic Closet

Mark Dery

in I Must Not Think Bad Thoughts: Drive-by Essays on American Dread, American Dreams

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
August 2015
ISBN:
9780816677733
eISBN:
9781452948324
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Minnesota Press
DOI:
10.5749/minnesota/9780816677733.003.0016
Subject:
Society and Culture, Media Studies

This chapter addresses the sexuality of HAL, the psychotic supercomputer in the sci-fi classic 2001. HAL is a brainchild of Alan Turing, the British mathematician who helped create history’s first ... More


Intelligence

Andrew Goffey

in Software Studies: A Lexicon

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262062749
eISBN:
9780262273343
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262062749.003.0018
Subject:
Society and Culture, Media Studies

This chapter explores the concept of computing intelligence by taking the Turing machine into consideration. It also discusses the Turing test in the research of machine intelligence and states that ... More


The Turing Text

Stephen Ramsay

in Reading Machines: Toward an Algorithmic Criticism

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
April 2017
ISBN:
9780252036415
eISBN:
9780252093449
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Illinois Press
DOI:
10.5406/illinois/9780252036415.003.0004
Subject:
Literature, Criticism/Theory

This chapter delves deeper into the terms of programming as variety of textual activity, in an attempt to unite the reductive calculus of computation to the broader act of critical narrative. ... More


Turing’s legacy

Jonathan Bowen and Jack Copeland

in The Turing Guide

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780198747826
eISBN:
9780191916946
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198747826.003.0055
Subject:
Computer Science, History of Computer Science

In terms of public appreciation Turing has risen quickly from zero to hero. The decades of obscurity (Who did you say? Turning?) came to an end with the ... More


Deceitful Media: Artificial Intelligence and Social Life after the Turing Test

Simone Natale

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
February 2021
ISBN:
9780190080365
eISBN:
9780190080402
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190080365.001.0001
Subject:
History, Cultural History

Artificial intelligence (AI) is often discussed as something extraordinary, a dream—or a nightmare—that awakens metaphysical questions on human life. Yet far from a distant technology of the future, ... More


Cognition is Embodied

Martin V. Butz and Esther F. Kutter

in How the Mind Comes into Being: Introducing Cognitive Science from a Functional and Computational Perspective

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
July 2017
ISBN:
9780198739692
eISBN:
9780191834462
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198739692.003.0003
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Models and Architectures, Cognitive Psychology

With the motivation to develop computational and algorithmic levels of understanding how the mind comes into being, this chapter considers computer science, artificial intelligence, and cognitive ... More


Algorithms, Agents, and Ontologies

Paul Kockelman

in The Art of Interpretation in the Age of Computation

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
July 2017
ISBN:
9780190636531
eISBN:
9780190636562
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190636531.003.0007
Subject:
Linguistics, Sociolinguistics / Anthropological Linguistics

This chapter details the inner workings of spam filters, algorithmic devices that separate desirable messages from undesirable messages. It argues that such filters are a particularly important kind ... More


It’s Got to Be Human!

Michael Tye

in Tense Bees and Shell-Shocked Crabs: Are Animals Conscious?

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
November 2016
ISBN:
9780190278014
eISBN:
9780190278045
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190278014.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, Moral Philosophy

Historically, major intellectual figures, most notably Rene Descartes, have been committed to the claim that only humans can have experiences. Radical conservatism of this sort is a mistake. The ... More


Interactional Expertise and the Imitation Game

Robert Evans and Harry Collins

in Trading Zones and Interactional Expertise: Creating New Kinds of Collaboration

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262014724
eISBN:
9780262289436
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262014724.003.0004
Subject:
Society and Culture, Technology and Society

This chapter discusses recent empirical studies of interactional expertise. Interactional expertise involves “walking the talk” of an expert community, which means using the language of the community ... More


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