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Turing and the computer

B. Jack Copeland and Diane Proudfoot

in Alan Turing's Automatic Computing Engine: The Master Codebreaker's Struggle to build the Modern Computer

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780198565932
eISBN:
9780191714016
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198565932.003.0006
Subject:
Mathematics, History of Mathematics

This chapter discusses Turing's contributions to the field of computing. Topics covered include the Turing machine, cryptanalytic machines, the ACE and the EDVAC, the Manchester computer, artificial ... More


Introduction

Pierluigi Frisco

in Computing with Cells: Advances in Membrane Computing

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199542864
eISBN:
9780191715679
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199542864.003.0001
Subject:
Mathematics, Applied Mathematics, Mathematical Biology

This chapter gives a very brief introduction to computability emphasising concepts playing an important role here. The chapter describes how in the 1920s the interest of Alan Turing in describing in ... More


Introduction

B. Jack Copeland

in Alan Turing's Automatic Computing Engine: The Master Codebreaker's Struggle to build the Modern Computer

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780198565932
eISBN:
9780191714016
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198565932.003.0001
Subject:
Mathematics, History of Mathematics

This introductory chapter discusses the development of Alan Turing's ‘universal computing machine’, better known as the universal Turing Machine. The earliest large-scale electronic digital ... More


Turing machines and causal mechanisms in cognitive science

Lappi Otto and Anna‐Mari Rusanen

in Causality in the Sciences

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199574131
eISBN:
9780191728921
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199574131.003.0011
Subject:
Mathematics, Logic / Computer Science / Mathematical Philosophy

A body of recent literature has proposed that explanation in neurosciences, including cognitive neuroscience, is mechanistic. It has also been argued that the mechanistic model could be extended to ... More


Computable Rationality

Kumaraswamy Velupillai

in Computable Economics: The Arne Ryde Memorial Lectures

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198295273
eISBN:
9780191596988
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198295278.003.0003
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Macro- and Monetary Economics

There are two main themes in Ch. 3. Firstly, the demonstration that the choice behaviour of the rational economic person of standard economic theory can be shown, formally, to be equivalent to the ... More


Effective Playability in Arithmetical Games

Kumaraswamy Velupillai

in Computable Economics: The Arne Ryde Memorial Lectures

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198295273
eISBN:
9780191596988
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198295278.003.0007
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Macro- and Monetary Economics

Class games, called Arithmetical Games, are defined and recursion theoretic questions such as effective playability, diophantine complexity, etc. are posed and formally answered. In the process, ... More


Minds and Machines

Richard Tieszen

in After Gödel: Platonism and Rationalism in Mathematics and Logic

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780199606207
eISBN:
9780191725500
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199606207.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

Are human minds just Turing machines or some kind of computational information processors? Many scholars, including Gödel himself, have thought that the incompleteness theorems have important ... More


Universal computer: The Turing machine

Iwo Białynicki-Birula and Iwona Białynicka-Birula

in Modeling Reality: How Computers Mirror Life

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198531005
eISBN:
9780191713033
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198531005.003.0015
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

A Turing machine is a model of all computers. The hardware consists of a tape to write on and the head that does the writing depending on its internal state. The software is a set of rules that ... More


The Universal Machine

Arlindo Oliveira

in The Digital Mind: How Science is Redefining Humanity

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9780262036030
eISBN:
9780262338394
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262036030.003.0004
Subject:
Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence

This chapter covers the development of computing, from its origins, with the analytical engine, to modern computer science. Babbage and Ada Lovelace’s contributions to the science of computing led, ... More


Explorations in Computable Economics

Kumaraswamy Velupillai

in Computable Economics: The Arne Ryde Memorial Lectures

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198295273
eISBN:
9780191596988
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198295278.003.0009
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Macro- and Monetary Economics

Three topics are discussed as pointers towards issues at the frontiers of computable economics: effectivizing the fundamental theorems of welfare economics; computable production theory; the ... More


Turing Machines

Paul J. Nahin

in The Logician and the Engineer: How George Boole and Claude Shannon Created the Information Age

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9780691176000
eISBN:
9781400844654
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691176000.003.0009
Subject:
Mathematics, History of Mathematics

This chapter discusses Turing machines. A Turing machine is the combination of a sequential, finite-state machine plus an external read/write memory storage medium called the tape (think of a ribbon ... More


Intelligent machinery

Jack Copeland

in The Turing Guide

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780198747826
eISBN:
9780191916946
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198747826.003.0035
Subject:
Computer Science, History of Computer Science

This chapter explains why Turing is regarded as founding father of the field of artificial intelligence (AI), and analyses his famous method for testing whether a computer is capable of thought. In ... More


Baby

Jack Copeland

in The Turing Guide

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780198747826
eISBN:
9780191916946
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198747826.003.0029
Subject:
Computer Science, History of Computer Science

The modern computer age began on 21 June 1948, when the first electronic universal stored-program computer successfully ran its first program. Built in Manchester, this ancestral computer was the ... More


Computer Dreams

Chris Bleakley

in Poems That Solve Puzzles: The History and Science of Algorithms

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
October 2020
ISBN:
9780198853732
eISBN:
9780191888168
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198853732.003.0003
Subject:
Mathematics, History of Mathematics, Logic / Computer Science / Mathematical Philosophy

Chapter 3 tells the story of the visionaries that first imagined the computer. In the 19th century, Charles Babbage invented a mechanical computer but failed in his attempts to build it. He and Ada ... More


Crime and punishment

Jack Copeland

in The Turing Guide

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780198747826
eISBN:
9780191916946
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198747826.003.0010
Subject:
Computer Science, History of Computer Science

In 1952 Turing was arrested and tried for being gay. The court convicted him and sentenced him to chemical castration. It was disgraceful treatment by the nation that he had done so much to save. ... More


Intelligence

Andrew Goffey

in Software Studies: A Lexicon

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262062749
eISBN:
9780262273343
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262062749.003.0018
Subject:
Society and Culture, Media Studies

This chapter explores the concept of computing intelligence by taking the Turing machine into consideration. It also discusses the Turing test in the research of machine intelligence and states that ... More


Introduction and Overview

Kumaraswamy Velupillai

in Computable Economics: The Arne Ryde Memorial Lectures

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198295273
eISBN:
9780191596988
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198295278.003.0001
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Macro- and Monetary Economics

The first chapter gives a summary of the methodological and epistemological underpinnings of computable economics. There are, in addition, concise chapter summaries and a brief excursion into a ... More


Entropy and Information

Manfred Eigen

in From Strange Simplicity to Complex Familiarity: A Treatise on Matter, Information, Life and Thought

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2013
ISBN:
9780198570219
eISBN:
9780191748974
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198570219.003.0003
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics

The title given to this chapter does not look very exciting, but the problems discussed in it definitely are. Claude Shannon’s “theory of information”, which he preferred to call “theory of ... More


Software: Making a Digital Computer Do Something Useful

James A. Anderson

in After Digital: Computation as Done by Brains and Machines

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
February 2018
ISBN:
9780199357789
eISBN:
9780190675264
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199357789.003.0004
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

Digital computers are “protean” in that they can become almost anything through software. Their basic design elements came from a 19th-century British tradition in logic, exemplified by Boole and ... More


Computing with Artificial Chemistries

Wolfgang Banzhaf and Lidia Yamamoto

in Artificial Chemistries

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
September 2016
ISBN:
9780262029438
eISBN:
9780262329460
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262029438.003.0017
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health

This chapter reviews techniques and algorithms for computing with artificial chemistries in silico, that is, using conventional computers. We start with some principles of implementation of chemical ... More


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