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Salvation through Dissent: Tonghak Heterodoxy and Early Modern Korea

George L. Kallander

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
November 2016
ISBN:
9780824837167
eISBN:
9780824871222
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of Hawai'i Press
DOI:
10.21313/hawaii/9780824837167.001.0001
Subject:
History, Asian History

A popular teaching that combined elements of Confucianism, Daoism, Buddhism, folk beliefs, and Catholicism, Tonghak (Eastern Learning) is best known for its involvement in a rebellion that touched ... More


Eastern Learning and the Heavenly Way: The Tonghak and Chondogyo Movements and the Twilight of Korean Independence

Carl Young

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
November 2016
ISBN:
9780824838881
eISBN:
9780824868451
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of Hawai'i Press
DOI:
10.21313/hawaii/9780824838881.001.0001
Subject:
History, Asian History

Tonghak, or Eastern Learning, founded in 1860, combined aspects of a variety of Korean religious traditions. It became best known for its prominent role in the largest peasant rebellion in Korean ... More


Origins of Protestantism and Tonghak in Late Chosŏn Korea

Albert L. Park

in Building a Heaven on Earth: Religion, Activism, and Protest in Japanese Occupied Korea

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
November 2016
ISBN:
9780824839659
eISBN:
9780824869434
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Hawai'i Press
DOI:
10.21313/hawaii/9780824839659.003.0002
Subject:
History, Asian History

Chapter 1 examines the origins of Tonghak and Protestant Christianity in Korea. In particular, it shows the institutional strength and influence of these two religions in Korean society. Also, it ... More


People and Foreigners: The Northwestern Provinces, 1896–1904

Yumi Moon

in Populist Collaborators: The Ilchinhoe and the Japanese Colonization of Korea, 1896-1910

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780801450419
eISBN:
9780801467950
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Cornell University Press
DOI:
10.7591/cornell/9780801450419.003.0003
Subject:
History, Asian History

This chapter outlines the directions taken by popular movements in the northwestern provinces between 1896 and 1904. Popular movements during this period were not simply nationalistic or due purely ... More


As a Middle People: Military Officers, Jurists, and Calligraphers

Eugene Y. Park

in A Family of No Prominence: The Descendants of Pak T?khwa and the Birth of Modern Korea

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
September 2014
ISBN:
9780804788762
eISBN:
9780804790864
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Stanford University Press
DOI:
10.11126/stanford/9780804788762.003.0004
Subject:
History, Asian History

By the early nineteenth century, the wealthy Paks were unequivocally of specialist capital chungin status, except for those descended from illegitimate sons. Chapter 3 explores the meanings of their ... More


Early Tonghak and the 1894 Rebellion

Carl F. Young

in Eastern Learning and the Heavenly Way: The Tonghak and Chondogyo Movements and the Twilight of Korean Independence

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
November 2016
ISBN:
9780824838881
eISBN:
9780824868451
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Hawai'i Press
DOI:
10.21313/hawaii/9780824838881.003.0001
Subject:
History, Asian History

This chapter investigates Tonghak's founding and organization in the last half of the nineteenth century. Its founder, Ch'oe Che-u, started preaching his new religious ideas among peasants and ... More


A Time of Trouble, 1895–1900

Carl F. Young

in Eastern Learning and the Heavenly Way: The Tonghak and Chondogyo Movements and the Twilight of Korean Independence

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
November 2016
ISBN:
9780824838881
eISBN:
9780824868451
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Hawai'i Press
DOI:
10.21313/hawaii/9780824838881.003.0002
Subject:
History, Asian History

This chapter focuses on the events that occurred within Tonghak following the failure of the 1894 uprising up to the final ascension of Son Pyŏng-hŭi as its supreme leader in 1900. The failure of the ... More


Exile—Son Pyŏng-Hŭi in Japan, 1901–1904

Carl F. Young

in Eastern Learning and the Heavenly Way: The Tonghak and Chondogyo Movements and the Twilight of Korean Independence

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
November 2016
ISBN:
9780824838881
eISBN:
9780824868451
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Hawai'i Press
DOI:
10.21313/hawaii/9780824838881.003.0003
Subject:
History, Asian History

This chapter deals with the developments that occurred during the early years of Son's sojourn in Japan from 1901 to 1904. Following a period of turmoil within Tonghak's ranks, Son had left Korea in ... More


Tonghak and the Ilchinhoe, 1904–1906

Carl F. Young

in Eastern Learning and the Heavenly Way: The Tonghak and Chondogyo Movements and the Twilight of Korean Independence

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
November 2016
ISBN:
9780824838881
eISBN:
9780824868451
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Hawai'i Press
DOI:
10.21313/hawaii/9780824838881.003.0004
Subject:
History, Asian History

This chapter reviews the events leading up to the formation of the Ilchinhoe and attempts to analyze what may have motivated the people and organizations involved in these events. At around the same ... More


Administrative Centralization and Leadership Struggles in Ch’ŏndogyo, 1906–1908

Carl F. Young

in Eastern Learning and the Heavenly Way: The Tonghak and Chondogyo Movements and the Twilight of Korean Independence

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
November 2016
ISBN:
9780824838881
eISBN:
9780824868451
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Hawai'i Press
DOI:
10.21313/hawaii/9780824838881.003.0005
Subject:
History, Asian History

This chapter contends that Tonghak's transition to Ch'ŏndogyo is an example of the challenges and opportunities faced by a religion attempting to maintain and increase its hold on modern society. ... More


Conclusion

Carl F. Young

in Eastern Learning and the Heavenly Way: The Tonghak and Chondogyo Movements and the Twilight of Korean Independence

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
November 2016
ISBN:
9780824838881
eISBN:
9780824868451
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Hawai'i Press
DOI:
10.21313/hawaii/9780824838881.003.0008
Subject:
History, Asian History

This concluding chapter remarks on Ch'ŏndogyo's activities after the annexation, and offers some concluding thoughts on the organization's ability to adapt in Korea's turbulent modern history. ... More


Securing the People: Orthodoxy, Heterodoxy, and the Confucian State

George L. Kallander

in Salvation through Dissent: Tonghak Heterodoxy and Early Modern Korea

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
November 2016
ISBN:
9780824837167
eISBN:
9780824871222
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Hawai'i Press
DOI:
10.21313/hawaii/9780824837167.003.0001
Subject:
History, Asian History

This chapter shows how Tonghak was one example of a wider pattern of contestation in East Asia, where peripheral groups challenged the center through religion and unsanctioned doctrines. Each ... More


Uncertain Times, Uncertain Means: Rural Life, Western Ways, and Ch’oe Cheu

George L. Kallander

in Salvation through Dissent: Tonghak Heterodoxy and Early Modern Korea

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
November 2016
ISBN:
9780824837167
eISBN:
9780824871222
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Hawai'i Press
DOI:
10.21313/hawaii/9780824837167.003.0002
Subject:
History, Asian History

Over the course of the nineteenth century, Catholics and Tonghak followers demonstrated the limits of centralized governance and its attempt to regulate religious expression as they continued to ... More


Kumi Mountain: Center of the World, 1861–1863

George L. Kallander

in Salvation through Dissent: Tonghak Heterodoxy and Early Modern Korea

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
November 2016
ISBN:
9780824837167
eISBN:
9780824871222
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Hawai'i Press
DOI:
10.21313/hawaii/9780824837167.003.0003
Subject:
History, Asian History

Between 1861 and 1863, Ch'oe Cheu had spread his teaching throughout the south, attracted tens of thousands of followers, and became famous throughout the peninsula. Examining developments in the ... More


The Tonghaks Have Again Arisen, 1864–1894

George L. Kallander

in Salvation through Dissent: Tonghak Heterodoxy and Early Modern Korea

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
November 2016
ISBN:
9780824837167
eISBN:
9780824871222
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Hawai'i Press
DOI:
10.21313/hawaii/9780824837167.003.0004
Subject:
History, Asian History

This chapter focuses on the leaders who carried on the Tonghak legacy following Ch'oe Cheu's execution. Tonghak was profoundly marked by state repression, Catholic persecution, and experiences in ... More


Another Tonghak Revolution, 1904–1907

George L. Kallander

in Salvation through Dissent: Tonghak Heterodoxy and Early Modern Korea

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
November 2016
ISBN:
9780824837167
eISBN:
9780824871222
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Hawai'i Press
DOI:
10.21313/hawaii/9780824837167.003.0005
Subject:
History, Asian History

This chapter examines the aftermath of 1894 through the case of Son Pyŏnghŭi (1861–1922), the third leader of Tonghak and the founder of Ch'ŏndogyo, to demonstrate how followers struggled to control ... More


Conclusion

George L. Kallander

in Salvation through Dissent: Tonghak Heterodoxy and Early Modern Korea

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
November 2016
ISBN:
9780824837167
eISBN:
9780824871222
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Hawai'i Press
DOI:
10.21313/hawaii/9780824837167.003.0006
Subject:
History, Asian History

This concluding chapter summarizes key themes and presents some final thoughts. This book has attempted to put into perspective Korea's tumultuous nineteenth century by examining how religious ... More


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