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Intellectual Freedom

Matthew Stanley

in Huxley's Church and Maxwell's Demon: From Theistic Science to Naturalistic Science

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780226164878
eISBN:
9780226164908
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226164908.003.0006
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

The previous chapter laid the foundation for the argument that the central controversy in the control of Victorian science education was not religion, but rather sectarianism and dogmatism. Closer ... More


The Uniformity of Natural Laws

Matthew Stanley

in Huxley's Church and Maxwell's Demon: From Theistic Science to Naturalistic Science

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780226164878
eISBN:
9780226164908
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226164908.003.0003
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

One of the most basic elements of Victorian (and, indeed, modern) scientific practice was the expectation that nature functioned according to fixed laws, which never varied in time or place. This ... More


“The Great O. versus the Jermyn St. Pet”: Huxley, Falconer, and Owen on Paleontological Method

Gowan Dawson

in Victorian Scientific Naturalism: Community, Identity, Continuity

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
September 2014
ISBN:
9780226109503
eISBN:
9780226109640
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226109640.003.0002
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter examines the paleontological dispute from 1856 to 1857 between Thomas Henry Huxley, Hugh Falconer, and Richard Owen, and its role in forging a sense of solidarity and community amongst ... More


Free Will and Natural Laws

Matthew Stanley

in Huxley's Church and Maxwell's Demon: From Theistic Science to Naturalistic Science

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780226164878
eISBN:
9780226164908
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226164908.003.0007
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Naturalistic approaches to explaining the living world led to intense controversies over whether free will and consciousness could be explained away as illusions in a mechanistic brain. Huxley and ... More


Practitioners Enter the Field Huxley and Ball as Popularizers

in Victorian Popularizers of Science: Designing Nature for New Audiences

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
March 2013
ISBN:
9780226481180
eISBN:
9780226481173
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226481173.003.0007
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter examines the works of the scientific practitioners Thomas Henry Huxley and Robert Ball, who became active popularizers of science only after the early 1870s, analyses the shift in ... More


Darwin's Champions

Jan Sapp

in Genesis: The Evolution of Biology

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195156195
eISBN:
9780199790340
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195156195.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter focuses on champions of Darwin's evolutionary theory, the most prominent being Thomas Henry Huxley in the UK and Ernst Haeckel in Germany. Topics discussed include man's place in nature, ... More


The Limits of Science

Matthew Stanley

in Huxley's Church and Maxwell's Demon: From Theistic Science to Naturalistic Science

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780226164878
eISBN:
9780226164908
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226164908.003.0004
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

One of the most contentious issues with which the emerging naturalism had to grapple was the question of what, if anything, was beyond science’s grasp. Both naturalists and theists accused each other ... More


Religious Lives

Matthew Stanley

in Huxley's Church and Maxwell's Demon: From Theistic Science to Naturalistic Science

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780226164878
eISBN:
9780226164908
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226164908.003.0002
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This introductory chapter describes Maxwell’s and Huxley’s backgrounds, particularly the formation of their views on and experience with religion. It shows the variety of “religion” present in the ... More


The Goals of Science Education: The Working Men’s College

Matthew Stanley

in Huxley's Church and Maxwell's Demon: From Theistic Science to Naturalistic Science

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780226164878
eISBN:
9780226164908
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226164908.003.0005
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

The myth of inevitable conflict between science and religion grew out of a genuine battleground - the control of educational institutions in Britain. Huxley and the scientific naturalists were ... More


History, Biography, Autobiography

Paul Turner

in Victorian Poetry, Drama and Miscellaneous Prose 1832–1890

Published in print:
1990
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198122395
eISBN:
9780191671401
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198122395.003.0016
Subject:
Literature, 19th-century and Victorian Literature

This chapter explores several author’s history, biography, and autobiography. Authors’ lives are apt to be dull, and those who turn author only to tell the story of their lives are unlikely to write ... More


Huxley's Church and Maxwell's Demon: From Theistic Science to Naturalistic Science

Matthew Stanley

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780226164878
eISBN:
9780226164908
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226164908.001.0001
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

During the Victorian period science shifted from being practiced in a theistic context to a naturalistic context. This book examines the foundations of that change. It is generally thought that this ... More


How the Naturalists “Won”

Matthew Stanley

in Huxley's Church and Maxwell's Demon: From Theistic Science to Naturalistic Science

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780226164878
eISBN:
9780226164908
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226164908.003.0008
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter shows how Huxley and the other scientific naturalists used the similarity between theistic and naturalistic science to take control of scientific institutions. In particular, the ... More


Correlation under Siege

Gowan Dawson

in Show Me the Bone: Reconstructing Prehistoric Monsters in Nineteenth-Century Britain and America

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
September 2016
ISBN:
9780226332734
eISBN:
9780226332871
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226332871.003.0007
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter considers how Thomas Henry Huxley, beginning in the mid-1850s during the Crimean War, impugned the abilities of Cuvier, asserting that the ostensibly infallible law of physiological ... More


AUGUST MENCKEN & BRO.

Marion Elizabeth Rodgers

in Mencken: The American Iconoclast

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195072389
eISBN:
9780199787982
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195072389.003.0004
Subject:
Literature, 19th-century and Victorian Literature

This chapter chronicles Mencken's rebellion against his father; he plot to his escape from working at the family cigar factory to become a newspaperman. Unable to do so, Mencken retreats into the ... More


The Problems of Popularization

Gowan Dawson

in Show Me the Bone: Reconstructing Prehistoric Monsters in Nineteenth-Century Britain and America

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
September 2016
ISBN:
9780226332734
eISBN:
9780226332871
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226332871.003.0008
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter shows that while Huxley won over the scientific community, he was less successful in persuading general audiences, who were instead more likely to listen to popularizers of science. The ... More


Prophecies of the Past

Gowan Dawson

in Show Me the Bone: Reconstructing Prehistoric Monsters in Nineteenth-Century Britain and America

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
September 2016
ISBN:
9780226332734
eISBN:
9780226332871
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226332871.003.0011
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter explores how, amid the dramatic changes of the final years of the Victorian era, there was a notable revival of interest in Cuvierian correlation. Huxley finally stated his objections to ... More


Unfortunate Allies

Gowan Dawson

in Show Me the Bone: Reconstructing Prehistoric Monsters in Nineteenth-Century Britain and America

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
September 2016
ISBN:
9780226332734
eISBN:
9780226332871
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226332871.003.0009
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter explores how Robert Knox, the Edinburgh anatomist disgraced by the Burke and Hare murders, recommenced his prolonged campaign against the law of correlation in the mid-1850s, just as ... More


Natural History Periodicals and Changing Conceptions of the Naturalist Community, 1828–65

Geoffrey Belknap

in Science Periodicals in Nineteenth-Century Britain: Constructing Scientific Communities

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
September 2020
ISBN:
9780226676517
eISBN:
9780226683461
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226683461.003.0006
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter explores the changing visions for one of the first subject specialist periodical formats of the nineteenth century, the natural history periodical. It follows three broadly differing ... More


Thomas Henry Huxley

W. J. Mander

in The Unknowable: A Study in Nineteenth-Century British Metaphysics

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
June 2020
ISBN:
9780198809531
eISBN:
9780191846878
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198809531.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

We have seen how in Hamilton, Mansel, and Spencer the combination of metaphysical realism and a belief in ‘the relativity of knowledge’ leads to agnosticism about ultimate reality—the position that ... More


Peter Kropotkin: Anarchist, Revolutionary, Dreamer

Oren Harman

in Dreamers, Visionaries, and Revolutionaries in the Life Sciences

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
January 2019
ISBN:
9780226569871
eISBN:
9780226570075
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226570075.003.0004
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Evolution is a game of survival of the fittest, and to survive, organisms have to compete. But does competition always lead to a struggle between and within species, or can it also lead to ... More


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