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The Thirteen Factories: An Architecture of Sino-Western Collaboration and Confrontation

Johnathan Andrew Farris

in Enclave to Urbanity: Canton, Foreigners, and Architecture from the Late Eighteenth to the Early Twentieth Centuries

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9789888208876
eISBN:
9789888313679
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Hong Kong University Press
DOI:
10.5790/hongkong/9789888208876.003.0001
Subject:
Architecture, Architectural History

Chapter 1 covers the first of the three distinct phases of foreign habitation in Guangzhou, the Thirteen Factories, characterized by Westerners and Chinese employees living in close quarters in ... More


The Shopping Streets in the Foreign Quarter1

Paul A. Van Dyke and Maria Kar-wing Mok

in Images of the Canton Factories 1760-1822: Reading History in Art

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9789888208555
eISBN:
9789888313778
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Hong Kong University Press
DOI:
10.5790/hongkong/9789888208555.003.0009
Subject:
History, Asian History

Chapter 9 is a bit different from all the other chapters. It is a discussion of the establishment of the shopping streets in the foreigner quarter. The Conclusion summarizes the main issues raised in ... More


Images of the Canton Factories 1760-1822: Reading History in Art

Paul A. Van Dyke and Maria Kar-wing Mok

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9789888208555
eISBN:
9789888313778
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Hong Kong University Press
DOI:
10.5790/hongkong/9789888208555.001.0001
Subject:
History, Asian History

Hundreds of Chinese export paintings of Canton trading houses and shopping streets are in museums and private collections throughout the world, and scholars of art and history have often questioned ... More


Westerners Draw Their Boundaries: Insular Living and Its Exceptions

Johnathan Andrew Farris

in Enclave to Urbanity: Canton, Foreigners, and Architecture from the Late Eighteenth to the Early Twentieth Centuries

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9789888208876
eISBN:
9789888313679
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Hong Kong University Press
DOI:
10.5790/hongkong/9789888208876.003.0002
Subject:
Architecture, Architectural History

Chapter 2 will cover the period encapsulated between circa 1860 and 1905. The victorious belligerents of the Arrow War, Britain and France, were granted substantial indemnity funds and the rights to ... More


Enclave to Urbanity: Canton, Foreigners, and Architecture from the Late Eighteenth to the Early Twentieth Centuries

Johnathan Andrew Farris

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9789888208876
eISBN:
9789888313679
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Hong Kong University Press
DOI:
10.5790/hongkong/9789888208876.001.0001
Subject:
Architecture, Architectural History

Cross-cultural relations are spatial relations. Enclave to Urbanity is the first book in English that examines how the architecture and the urban landscape of Guangzhou framed the relations between ... More


New British Factories, Return of the Danes, and the Great Fire: 1815–1822

Paul A. Van Dyke and Maria Kar-wing Mok

in Images of the Canton Factories 1760-1822: Reading History in Art

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9789888208555
eISBN:
9789888313778
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Hong Kong University Press
DOI:
10.5790/hongkong/9789888208555.003.0008
Subject:
History, Asian History

Chapter 8 covers the years from 1815 to the fire of November 1822 when all of the factories burned down. This was the period when the British rebuilt their factories and when the Danes returned to ... More


The Opening of Trade and the Debt Crisis: 1771–1781

Paul A. Van Dyke and Maria Kar-wing Mok

in Images of the Canton Factories 1760-1822: Reading History in Art

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9789888208555
eISBN:
9789888313778
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Hong Kong University Press
DOI:
10.5790/hongkong/9789888208555.003.0002
Subject:
History, Asian History

Chapter 2 then covers the period following the disbanding of the Co-hong and the opening of trade from 1771 to 1781. The resulting debt crisis that emerged in the late 1770s had an impact on the ... More


Vantage Points, Perspectives and Artistic Presentation

Paul A. Van Dyke and Maria Kar-wing Mok

in Images of the Canton Factories 1760-1822: Reading History in Art

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9789888208555
eISBN:
9789888313778
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Hong Kong University Press
DOI:
10.5790/hongkong/9789888208555.003.0005
Subject:
History, Asian History

Acknowledging the different vantage points used in paintings is important when interpreting factory scenes. A close examination of paintings from the 1760s to the 1820s reveals two commonly applied ... More


American Entrepreneurs and the Brief Return of the French: 1800–1814

Paul A. Van Dyke and Maria Kar-wing Mok

in Images of the Canton Factories 1760-1822: Reading History in Art

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9789888208555
eISBN:
9789888313778
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Hong Kong University Press
DOI:
10.5790/hongkong/9789888208555.003.0007
Subject:
History, Asian History

Chapter 7 covers the years from 1800 to 1814. This was the period when American entrepreneurs began taking over parts of the factories and also when the French briefly returned to Canton.


Rise of the Private Traders: 1790–1799

Paul A. Van Dyke and Maria Kar-wing Mok

in Images of the Canton Factories 1760-1822: Reading History in Art

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9789888208555
eISBN:
9789888313778
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Hong Kong University Press
DOI:
10.5790/hongkong/9789888208555.003.0006
Subject:
History, Asian History

Chapter 6 introduces changes that took place in the 1790s—especially the large influx of private traders. Those individuals had a significant impact on the architecture and management of the ... More


Ups and Downs of Trade: 1782–1789

Paul A. Van Dyke and Maria Kar-wing Mok

in Images of the Canton Factories 1760-1822: Reading History in Art

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9789888208555
eISBN:
9789888313778
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Hong Kong University Press
DOI:
10.5790/hongkong/9789888208555.003.0004
Subject:
History, Asian History

Chapter 4 discusses the ups and downs of the trade in the 1780s. A downturn in the volume of trade might result in changes and alterations to the factories being postponed, which helps to explain why ... More


Dining, Shopping, Bombarding, and Touring: Foreigners in the Traditional City

Johnathan Andrew Farris

in Enclave to Urbanity: Canton, Foreigners, and Architecture from the Late Eighteenth to the Early Twentieth Centuries

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9789888208876
eISBN:
9789888313679
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Hong Kong University Press
DOI:
10.5790/hongkong/9789888208876.003.0003
Subject:
Architecture, Architectural History

Chapter 3, the relationship of foreigners to the Chinese city per se. Should nineteenth-century Westerners choose to wander outside the narrow confines of their residential enclaves, they would by ... More


Problems with Porcelain

Paul A. Van Dyke and Maria Kar-wing Mok

in Images of the Canton Factories 1760-1822: Reading History in Art

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9789888208555
eISBN:
9789888313778
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Hong Kong University Press
DOI:
10.5790/hongkong/9789888208555.003.0003
Subject:
History, Asian History

The point of this discussion in chapter 3 is to provide answers as to why mistakes seem to appear more frequently on export porcelain factory scenes than on paintings. The painters were more ... More


The Years of the Co-hong: 1760–1770

Paul A. Van Dyke and Maria Kar-wing Mok

in Images of the Canton Factories 1760-1822: Reading History in Art

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9789888208555
eISBN:
9789888313778
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Hong Kong University Press
DOI:
10.5790/hongkong/9789888208555.003.0001
Subject:
History, Asian History

Chapter 1 begins with a discussion of the Co-hong (1760-1770) and the changes that took place during those years. This was the period when things became more stable for trade, when foreigners began ... More


Conclusion

Johnathan Andrew Farris

in Enclave to Urbanity: Canton, Foreigners, and Architecture from the Late Eighteenth to the Early Twentieth Centuries

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9789888208876
eISBN:
9789888313679
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Hong Kong University Press
DOI:
10.5790/hongkong/9789888208876.003.0005
Subject:
Architecture, Architectural History

In the present day, class, money, and privilege threaten to reinstate a separate existence that fails to serve the long-term best interests of the city’s Chinese and Western inhabitants. Tourists ... More


Xin Guangzhou: Architecture, Foreigners, and Modernity in the Early Twentieth Century

Johnathan Andrew Farris

in Enclave to Urbanity: Canton, Foreigners, and Architecture from the Late Eighteenth to the Early Twentieth Centuries

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9789888208876
eISBN:
9789888313679
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Hong Kong University Press
DOI:
10.5790/hongkong/9789888208876.003.0004
Subject:
Architecture, Architectural History

The final discussion, Chapter 4, examines the third phase of Western habitation, along with the emergence of a modern China and a “New Guangzhou” in the early twentieth century. The years immediately ... More


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