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“And Then We Wept”: Coral Death on Record

Irus Braverman

in Coral Whisperers: Scientists on the Brink

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9780520298842
eISBN:
9780520970830
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520298842.003.0005
Subject:
Environmental Science, Environmental Studies

Chapter 2, ““And Then We Wept”: Coral Death on Record,” documents the despair side of the pendulum as it contemplates the existing modes and technologies for recording coral bleaching and death. ... More


An Introduction to Thermal Physics

Daniel V. Schroeder

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
March 2021
ISBN:
9780192895547
eISBN:
9780191915000
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780192895547.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

Thermal physics deals with collections of large numbers of particles—typically 1023 or so. Examples include the air in a balloon, the water in a lake, the electrons in a chunk of metal, and the ... More


Principles of Thermal Ecology: Temperature, Energy, and Life

Andrew Clarke

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780199551668
eISBN:
9780191847936
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199551668.001.0001
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

Temperature affects everything. It influences all aspects of the physical environment and governs any process that involves a flow of energy, setting boundaries on what an organism can or cannot do. ... More


Balance of energy and entropy imbalance

Lallit Anand and Sanjay Govindjee

in Continuum Mechanics of Solids

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
September 2020
ISBN:
9780198864721
eISBN:
9780191896767
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198864721.003.0005
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter discusses the first and second laws of thermodynamics. The first law represents a balance between the rate of change of the internal energy plus the rate of change of kinetic energy of ... More


Thermal expansion

Robert E. Newnham

in Properties of Materials: Anisotropy, Symmetry, Structure

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780198520757
eISBN:
9780191916601
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198520757.003.0013
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Geochemistry

When a material is heated uniformly it undergoes a strain described by the Relationship … xij = αijΔT, … where αij are the thermal expansion coefficients and


Body Size, Maturation Size, and Growth Rate of Crustaceans

Piotr Maszczyk and Tomasz Brzeziński

in Life Histories: Volume 5

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
September 2021
ISBN:
9780190620271
eISBN:
9780197590461
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190620271.003.0002
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology, Aquatic Biology

Crustaceans present a remarkable variety of forms that differ greatly in body size and growth strategies (determinate or indeterminate). This diversity reflects the long evolutionary history of this ... More


The History of the Chronometer

Jonathan Betts

in Marine Chronometers at Greenwich: A Catalogue of Marine Chronometers at the National Maritime Museum, Greenwich

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
December 2017
ISBN:
9780199641383
eISBN:
9780191845604
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199641383.003.0001
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics

A newly researched history of the marine chronometer, from its earliest origins in the 17th century through to electronic instruments manufactured in the late 20th century. The narrative is written ... More


Specific heat and entropy

Robert E. Newnham

in Properties of Materials: Anisotropy, Symmetry, Structure

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780198520757
eISBN:
9780191916601
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198520757.003.0009
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Geochemistry

Before beginning the discussion of directional properties, we pause to consider specific heat, an important scalar property of solids which helps illustrate the important thermodynamic ... More


Pyroelectricity

Robert E. Newnham

in Properties of Materials: Anisotropy, Symmetry, Structure

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780198520757
eISBN:
9780191916601
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198520757.003.0010
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Geochemistry

As the name implies, pyroelectricity is a first rank tensor property relating a change polarization P to a change in temperature δT. The defining relation can also be written in terms of the ... More


Oxford’s urban growth and its potential impact on the local climate

Stephen Burt and Tim Burt

in Oxford Weather and Climate since 1767

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
July 2019
ISBN:
9780198834632
eISBN:
9780191872730
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198834632.003.0003
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics, Geophysics, Atmospheric and Environmental Physics

This chapter deals with the growth of Oxford since 1767 and assessment of the potential influence of the expanding urban area on the temperature record from the Radcliffe Observatory, using ... More


Long-period weather observations elsewhere in the British Isles and Europe

Stephen Burt and Tim Burt

in Oxford Weather and Climate since 1767

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
July 2019
ISBN:
9780198834632
eISBN:
9780191872730
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198834632.003.0005
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics, Geophysics, Atmospheric and Environmental Physics

This chapter summarises other long-period weather observations from both the British Isles and Europe. The Radcliffe Observatory possesses the longest continuous series of weather records in Britain ... More


Energy in Thermal Physics

Daniel V. Schroeder

in An Introduction to Thermal Physics

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
March 2021
ISBN:
9780192895547
eISBN:
9780191915000
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780192895547.003.0001
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

The behavior of energy in bulk-matter systems is subtle. We observe that energy flows spontaneously from high to low temperature; we refer to this flowing energy as heat; and we distinguish heat from ... More


Interactions and Implications

Daniel V. Schroeder

in An Introduction to Thermal Physics

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
March 2021
ISBN:
9780192895547
eISBN:
9780191915000
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780192895547.003.0003
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

Although the law of entropy increase governs the direction in which things change, we don’t observe entropy directly. Instead we observe three quantities—temperature, pressure, and chemical ... More


Heat capacity of electrons

Geoffrey Brooker

in Essays in Physics: Thirty-two thoughtful essays on topics in undergraduate-level physics

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
September 2021
ISBN:
9780198857242
eISBN:
9780191890284
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198857242.003.0027
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

“Heat capacity of electrons” is concerned with the heat capacity of conduction electrons in a metal. The heat capacity is usually of most interest at low temperatures. It is proportional to the ... More


Introduction

Andrew Clarke

in Principles of Thermal Ecology: Temperature, Energy, and Life

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780199551668
eISBN:
9780191847936
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199551668.003.0001
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

This introduces the subject, laying out the organisation of the book and emphasising the importance of both simple underlying physical mechanisms and evolutionary variability to thermal ecology. It ... More


Temperature and its measurement

Andrew Clarke

in Principles of Thermal Ecology: Temperature, Energy, and Life

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780199551668
eISBN:
9780191847936
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199551668.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

Temperature is that property of a body which determines whether it gains or loses energy in a particular environment. In classical thermodynamics temperature is defined by the relationship between ... More


Energy flow in organisms

Andrew Clarke

in Principles of Thermal Ecology: Temperature, Energy, and Life

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780199551668
eISBN:
9780191847936
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199551668.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

An organism is an open thermodynamic system exchanging both energy and materials with its environment. Organisms exchange energy with their environment by radiation, conduction, convection and ... More


Water

Andrew Clarke

in Principles of Thermal Ecology: Temperature, Energy, and Life

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780199551668
eISBN:
9780191847936
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199551668.003.0005
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

Liquid water is essential for life, and a metabolically active cell is ~70% water. The physical properties of liquid water, and their temperature dependence, are dictated to a significant extent by ... More


Temperature and reaction rate

Andrew Clarke

in Principles of Thermal Ecology: Temperature, Energy, and Life

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780199551668
eISBN:
9780191847936
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199551668.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

All other things being equal, physiological reaction rate increases roughly exponentially with temperature. Organisms that have adapted over evolutionary time to live at different temperatures can ... More


Metabolism

Andrew Clarke

in Principles of Thermal Ecology: Temperature, Energy, and Life

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780199551668
eISBN:
9780191847936
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199551668.003.0008
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

Metabolism is driven by redox reactions, in which part of the difference in potential energy between the electron donor and acceptor is used by the organism for its life processes (with the remainder ... More


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