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The Supply of Information Technology Workers, Higher Education, and Computing Research: A History of Policy and Practice in the United States

William Aspray

in Information Technology Policy: An International History

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199241057
eISBN:
9780191714290
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199241057.003.0003
Subject:
Business and Management, Information Technology

This chapter presents the history of policies and practices in the supply of IT workers, especially as they relate to policy for higher education and computing research, in the United States. There ... More


Eisenhower's Sputnik Moment: The Race for Space and World Prestige

Yanek Mieczkowski

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780801451508
eISBN:
9780801467936
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Cornell University Press
DOI:
10.7591/cornell/9780801451508.001.0001
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

In a critical Cold War moment, Dwight D. Eisenhower's presidency suddenly changed when the Soviet Union launched Sputnik, the world's first satellite. What Ike called “a small ball” became a source ... More


The Tools of Science: Dialectics and Children's Literature

Julia L. Mickenberg

in Learning from the Left: Children's Literature, the Cold War, and Radical Politics in the United States

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195152807
eISBN:
9780199788903
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195152807.003.0007
Subject:
History, Cultural History

This chapter takes as its point of departure the launch of the Soviet satellite, Sputnik, in 1957 and the subsequent passage of the National Defense Education Act, which, as part of its program of ... More


Setting the Atmosphere

Simone Turchetti

in Greening the Alliance: The Diplomacy of NATO's Science and Environmental Initiatives

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9780226595658
eISBN:
9780226595825
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226595825.003.0002
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Eight years after its foundation, the Atlantic alliance agreed to set up a Science Committee with the ambition of sponsoring a science program. This chapter first explores defence research projects ... More


Sputnik

Jonathan E. Lewis

in Spy Capitalism: ITEK and the CIA

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
October 2013
ISBN:
9780300091922
eISBN:
9780300129052
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Yale University Press
DOI:
10.12987/yale/9780300091922.003.0004
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

This chapter outlines the political concerns over the launch of Sputnik, which weighed 185 pounds and measured about twenty-three inches in diameter. Some investors assumed that Sputnik would spur ... More


Introduction

Yanek Mieczkowski

in Eisenhower's Sputnik Moment: The Race for Space and World Prestige

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780801451508
eISBN:
9780801467936
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Cornell University Press
DOI:
10.7591/cornell/9780801451508.003.0001
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

This introductory chapter recounts President Dwight D. Eisenhower's response to the Soviet Union's launching of the world's first satellite—Sputnik. He tried to dispel the notion that Sputnik should ... More


What Was the Sputnik “Panic”?

Yanek Mieczkowski

in Eisenhower's Sputnik Moment: The Race for Space and World Prestige

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780801451508
eISBN:
9780801467936
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Cornell University Press
DOI:
10.7591/cornell/9780801451508.003.0002
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

This chapter centers on Americans' reaction to the launching of Sputnik. George Reedy, an assistant to Senate Majority Leader Lyndon Johnson and later his press secretary, recalled that Sputnik's ... More


Eisenhower’s Reaction to Sputnik

Yanek Mieczkowski

in Eisenhower's Sputnik Moment: The Race for Space and World Prestige

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780801451508
eISBN:
9780801467936
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Cornell University Press
DOI:
10.7591/cornell/9780801451508.003.0004
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

This chapter examines Eisenhower's response to the launching of Sputnik. He urged Americans to remain calm, saying that U.S. national security was not undermined and thus should continue its ... More


Eisenhower’s Principles

Yanek Mieczkowski

in Eisenhower's Sputnik Moment: The Race for Space and World Prestige

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780801451508
eISBN:
9780801467936
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Cornell University Press
DOI:
10.7591/cornell/9780801451508.003.0005
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

This chapter highlights Eisenhower's governance principles that contributed to his response to the Sputnik launch. One of these is secrecy. By keeping America's defense secrets too tight, Eisenhower ... More


Priorities and Prestige

Yanek Mieczkowski

in Eisenhower's Sputnik Moment: The Race for Space and World Prestige

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780801451508
eISBN:
9780801467936
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Cornell University Press
DOI:
10.7591/cornell/9780801451508.003.0013
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

This chapter explains Eisenhower's priorities as well as his view on prestige in relation to space exploration. Nine months before Sputnik, while delivering his 1957 State of the Union address, ... More


Space, Prestige, and the 1960 Race

Yanek Mieczkowski

in Eisenhower's Sputnik Moment: The Race for Space and World Prestige

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780801451508
eISBN:
9780801467936
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Cornell University Press
DOI:
10.7591/cornell/9780801451508.003.0016
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

This chapter discusses the declining political prestige of Eisenhower, which was evident during the 1960 presidential elections. Prof. William Ewald believed that Sputnik represented the start of a ... More


Conclusion

Yanek Mieczkowski

in Eisenhower's Sputnik Moment: The Race for Space and World Prestige

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780801451508
eISBN:
9780801467936
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Cornell University Press
DOI:
10.7591/cornell/9780801451508.003.0018
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

This concluding chapter describes Eisenhower's leadership in relation to the Sputnik issue. Eisenhower practiced a disciplined leadership style stressing tenets that seemed archaic and dull. He ... More


To a Rocky Moon

James Lawrence Powell

in Four Revolutions in the Earth Sciences: From Heresy to Truth

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231164481
eISBN:
9780231538459
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231164481.003.0025
Subject:
Environmental Science, Environmental Studies

This chapter looks at space exploration initiatives, mainly by Russia and the United States, that opened up new discoveries about the Moon. On October 4, 1957, the Russians launched Sputnik, the ... More


When Structure Met Sputnik:: On the Cold War Origins of The Structure of Scientific Revolutions

George Reisch

in Science and Technology in the Global Cold War

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780262027953
eISBN:
9780262326100
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262027953.003.0012
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter examines two moments in the development of Thomas Kuhn’s theory of science that debuted in 1962’s The Structure of Scientific Revolutions: when Kuhn spoke in Berkeley about the meaning ... More


Cultural Context of Apollo Culture

Lisa Westwood, Beth Laura O’Leary, and Milford Wayne Donaldson

in The Final Mission: Preserving NASA's Apollo Sites

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9780813062464
eISBN:
9780813053004
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Florida
DOI:
10.5744/florida/9780813062464.003.0002
Subject:
Archaeology, Historical Archaeology

This chapter expands on the notion of Apollo Culture in greater detail, beginning with an historic context of the Cold War era. It takes a look at the Sputnik and Vanguard launches during the IGY ... More


Conclusions and Reflections

Lawrence S. Kaplan

in Harold Stassen: Eisenhower, the Cold War, and the Pursuit of Nuclear Disarmament

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
September 2018
ISBN:
9780813174860
eISBN:
9780813174877
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Kentucky
DOI:
10.5810/kentucky/9780813174860.003.0010
Subject:
History, Political History

Given the consistent failures in Harold Stassen’s long pursuit of the presidency, it is difficult to focus on his positive contributions to American policy during his four years in the Eisenhower ... More


Sustaining Leadership

William O. Walker III

in The Rise and Decline of the American Century

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9781501726132
eISBN:
9781501726149
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Cornell University Press
DOI:
10.7591/cornell/9781501726132.003.0005
Subject:
Political Science, American Politics

This chapter argues that Washington maintained its position of global leadership in the second half of the 1950s, keeping alive prospects for growth of the American Century. Challenges were many, ... More


The Sputnik Challenge

Jared S. Buss

in Willy Ley: Prophet of the Space Age

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
January 2018
ISBN:
9780813054438
eISBN:
9780813053172
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Florida
DOI:
10.5744/florida/9780813054438.003.0009
Subject:
History, Cultural History

This chapter discusses the myriad of Ley’s activities during the late 1950s, when his status as a scientific celebrity and rocket expert peaked. It follows his pre-Sputnik and post-Sputnik tactics. ... More


Reformer and Strategist?

Ingo Trauschweizer

in Maxwell Taylor's Cold War: From Berlin to Vietnam

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
September 2019
ISBN:
9780813177007
eISBN:
9780813177038
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Kentucky
DOI:
10.5810/kentucky/9780813177007.003.0004
Subject:
History, Military History

In the third chapter I discuss Taylor’s leadership of the army (1955-1959) and his opposition to massive retaliation. Taylor attempted to reform the army by installing new combat divisions for the ... More


Case Studies II: Challenges

William G. Howell, Saul P. Jackman, and Jon C. Rogowski

in The Wartime President: Executive Influence and the Nationalizing Politics of Threat

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780226048253
eISBN:
9780226048420
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226048420.003.0007
Subject:
Political Science, American Politics

The three case studies in this chapter, in one way or another, challenge the general claims of this book. With the federal government’s entrance into education policymaking in the late 1950s, we see ... More


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