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Strategies for Refuting Closure for Knowledge

Anthony Brueckner

in Essays on Skepticism

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780199585861
eISBN:
9780191595332
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199585861.003.0033
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter is a reply to Ted Warfield's claim that you cannot refute closure by showing that some necessary condition for knowledge is not closed.


Philosophers Past and Present: Selected Essays

Barry Stroud

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199608591
eISBN:
9780191729621
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199608591.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This book explores central issues and ideas in the work of individual philosophers, ranging from Descartes, Berkeley, Locke, and Hume to Quine, Burge, McDowell, Goldman, Fogelin, and Sosa in our own ... More


Faculties

Robert C. Roberts and W. Jay Wood

in Intellectual Virtues: An Essay in Regulative Epistemology

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
May 2007
ISBN:
9780199283675
eISBN:
9780191712661
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199283675.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

Faculties are the innate basis of our powers to do things; intellectual faculties are the innate basis of our intellectual powers — our abilities to acquire, refine, and transmit intellectual goods. ... More


Climate and Topography

Grady L. Webster and Robert M. Rhode

in Plant Diversity of an Andean Cloud Forest: Inventory of the Vascular Flora of Maquipucuna, Ecuador

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520098305
eISBN:
9780520915930
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520098305.003.0002
Subject:
Biology, Plant Sciences and Forestry

This chapter discusses the climate and topography of the Maquipucuna region. The climate of the region is equatorial and wet, with an annual rainfall of 3,230mm at an elevation of 1,630m. Because of ... More


Perceptual Knowledge and Recognitional Abilities

Alan Millar

in The Nature and Value of Knowledge: Three Investigations

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
September 2010
ISBN:
9780199586264
eISBN:
9780191723360
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199586264.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, General

This chapter gives an account of perceptual knowledge in which perceptual-recognitional abilities are central. These abilities are nothing less than knowledge-acquisition abilities. They include ... More


Epistemic Normativity

Stephen R. Grimm

in Epistemic Value

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199231188
eISBN:
9780191710827
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199231188.003.0012
Subject:
Philosophy, General

Among contemporary epistemologists, the most prominent way to make sense of epistemic evaluations is in teleological terms. On this way of looking at things, a belief earns positive marks just to the ... More


The Virtues in Theory and Practice

Talbot Brewer

in The Retrieval of Ethics

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780199557882
eISBN:
9780191720918
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199557882.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

Anglo‐American philosophy has recently seen two simultaneous virtue‐theoretic revivals — one in ethics and the other in epistemology. One might naturally assume that these are two manifestations of a ... More


The Justification of Introspective Beliefs

Richard Feldman

in Evidentialism: Essays in Epistemology

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
August 2004
ISBN:
9780199253722
eISBN:
9780191601361
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199253722.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Addresses an important challenge to any evidentialist view of the justification that conscious states provide. The challenge strongly suggests that something other than evidence plays a central role ... More


Philosophers’ Use of ‘Intuitive’ (I): A Defective Practice and the Verbal Virus Theory

Herman Cappelen

in Philosophy without Intuitions

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199644865
eISBN:
9780191739026
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199644865.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

After introducing a distinction between constructive and defective theoretical terms, it is suggested that ‘intuition’ and cognate terms are defective theoretical terms in philosophy. It does so by ... More


The Place of Truth in Epistemology

Ernest Sosa

in Intellectual Virtue: Perspectives from Ethics and Epistemology

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
September 2010
ISBN:
9780199252732
eISBN:
9780191719288
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199252732.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Suppose we think that knowledge is belief that is both true and derives from intellectual virtue. And if we also assume that knowledge is more valuable than mere true belief, then where does the ... More


Scepticism, ‘Externalism’, and the Goal of Epistemology

Barry Stroud

in Understanding Human Knowledge: Philosophical Essays

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199252138
eISBN:
9780191598500
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199252130.003.0010
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Stresses again the unavoidability of scepticism in a pursuit to defend a philosophical theory of knowledge and casts doubt on attempts to find solutions to the epistemological question other than ... More


Tracking, Competence, and Knowledge

Ernest Sosa

in The Oxford Handbook of Epistemology

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195130058
eISBN:
9780199833481
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195130057.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

In “Tracking, Competence, and Knowledge,” Ernest Sosa notes that in attempting to account for the conditions for knowledge, externalists have proposed that the justification condition be replaced or ... More


Virtues in Epistemology

John Greco

in The Oxford Handbook of Epistemology

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195130058
eISBN:
9780199833481
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195130057.003.0010
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

In ”Virtues in Epistemology,” John Greco presents and evaluates two main notions of intellectual virtue. The first concerns Ernest Sosa's development of this concept as a disposition to grasp truth ... More


Knowledge

Hilary Kornblith

in On Reflection

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199563005
eISBN:
9780191745263
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199563005.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Philosophy of Mind

It is tempting to hold that a belief which is held unreflectively is not justified, and therefore, cannot constitute knowledge. Justification seems to be something which we achieve, rather than ... More


Philosophical Analysis

John Heil

in From an Ontological Point of View

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199259748
eISBN:
9780191597657
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199259747.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Only philosophers beguiled by the Picture Theory could imagine that we are in a position to discover deep truths about the world by analysing language. Absolutists hold that, for stretches of ... More


Perceptual Knowledge and Epistemological Satisfaction

Barry Stroud

in Philosophers Past and Present: Selected Essays

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199608591
eISBN:
9780191729621
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199608591.003.0018
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter examines Ernest Sosa's ‘externalist’ answer to the traditional epistemological question of how we know things about the world around us. It agrees with Sosa's rejection of ‘internalist’ ... More


Defending Transglobal Reliabilism

David Henderson and Terence Horgan

in The Epistemological Spectrum: At the Interface of Cognitive Science and Conceptual Analysis

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199608546
eISBN:
9780191729584
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199608546.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

The overall work of this chapter is two-fold: First, it illustrates how philosophical reflection leading to transglobal reliabilism fully conforms to the model of low-grade a priori reflection ... More


Virtue and Character in Reliabilism

Jason Baehr

in The Inquiring Mind: On Intellectual Virtues and Virtue Epistemology

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199604074
eISBN:
9780191729300
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199604074.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

Here it is argued that while intellectual virtues do not merit a central and fundamental role in an analysis of knowledge, they do merit a peripheral or secondary role in reliabilist theories of ... More


Performance Epistemology: Foundations and Applications

Miguel Ángel Fernández Vargas (ed.)

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780198746942
eISBN:
9780191809156
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198746942.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This book brings together previously unpublished work which discuss key issues concerning the foundations and applications of a prominent branch of virtue epistemology called “performance-based ... More


Abilities, Competences, and Fallibility

Alan Millar

in Knowing by Perceiving

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
March 2019
ISBN:
9780198755692
eISBN:
9780191816840
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198755692.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

The account of recognitional abilities is situated within a broader perspective on general abilities, beginning with those exercised in doing things intentionally, like riding a bicycle. The success ... More


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