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Logic and Semantics in the Twentieth Century

Gabriel Sandu and Tuomo Aho

in The Development of Modern Logic

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195137316
eISBN:
9780199867912
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195137316.003.0040
Subject:
Philosophy, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics

This chapter explores logical semantics, that is, the structural meaning of logical expressions like connectives (it is not the case that, either or, if … then), quantifiers (there is, for all, ... More


Carnap's Lost World and Putnam's Paradox

Bas C. van Fraassen

in Scientific Representation: Paradoxes of Perspective

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780199278220
eISBN:
9780191707926
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199278220.003.00011
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, Philosophy of Science

In his Logische Aufbau, Rudolf Carnap presented a structuralist philosophy of science. Carnap exhibited a fluctuating awareness of the difficulty besetting that programme, and of the limited options ... More


Naturalism and Ontology

Mary Leng

in Mathematics and Reality

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780199280797
eISBN:
9780191723452
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199280797.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter clarifies and motivates the naturalist premise of the indispensability argument, which holds that we should look to our best scientific theories to discover what we have reason to ... More


Philosophy, 1900–1940

John A. Goldsmith and Bernard Laks

in Battle in the Mind Fields

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
September 2019
ISBN:
9780226550800
eISBN:
9780226550947
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226550947.003.0007
Subject:
History, History of Ideas

This chapter describes work in philosophy in the period 1900-1940 that influenced European linguists, and work that called for greater interest in the nature and structure of language. Edmund ... More


How to Define Theoretical Terms

David Lewis

in Philosophical Papers Volume I

Published in print:
1983
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195032048
eISBN:
9780199833382
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195032047.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, General

Lewis defends an account of the role of theoretical terms in scientific theories. Drawing on the work of Ramsey and Carnap, Lewis advocates the view that theoretical terms are implicitly defined by ... More


The Ghosts of Metaphysics: Logical Positivism and Disenchantment

Jason Ā. Josephson-Storm

in The Myth of Disenchantment: Magic, Modernity, and the Birth of the Human Sciences

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
January 2018
ISBN:
9780226403229
eISBN:
9780226403533
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226403533.003.0010
Subject:
History, History of Religion

Chapter 9 explores the connections between the Vienna Circle of positivism and the esoteric milieu. It shows how the founders of logical positivism, such as Otto Neurath, presented their philosophy ... More


General Semantics

David Lewis

in Philosophical Papers Volume I

Published in print:
1983
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195032048
eISBN:
9780199833382
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195032047.003.0012
Subject:
Philosophy, General

This paper presents Lewis's intensional semantics, on the basis of which he aims to answer two questions: “What sort of thing is a meaning?” and “What is the form of semantic rules whereby meanings ... More


Justification, Meta-Epistemology, and Meaning

Paul K. Moser

in Philosophy after Objectivity: Making Sense in Perspective

Published in print:
1993
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195081091
eISBN:
9780199852994
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195081091.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

One's explaining, evaluating, and arguing for epistemic justification and one's answers to questions about correct standards for such matters properly end in considerations about an operative notion ... More


Truth, Interpretation, and Meaning

Scott Soames

in Philosophy of Language

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691138664
eISBN:
9781400833931
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691138664.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

This chapter begins by discussing the work of Alfred Tarski. In the 1930s, Tarski published two articles that became classics. In “The Concept of Truth in Formalized Languages” (1935) he defined ... More


Semantics for Logical Necessity

Nino B. Cocchiarella and Max A. Freund

in Modal Logic: An Introduction to its Syntax and Semantics

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195366587
eISBN:
9780199851898
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195366587.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Language

This chapter initially describes possible-worlds semantics, which was first introduced by Rudolf Carnap in 1946 in terms of his state-description semantics, for sentential modal logic. Carnap was not ... More


Universals: Laws Grounded in Nature

Bas C. van Fraassen

in Laws and Symmetry

Published in print:
1989
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198248606
eISBN:
9780191597459
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198248601.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

Universals accounts of laws of nature begin with a robust anti‐nominalism: there are real properties and relations that are to be distinguished from sets or arbitrary classifications. Those real ... More


Ordinary Language and the Unordinary Philosophy of Peter Achinstein

Steven Gimbel and Jeffrey Maynes

in Philosophy of Science Matters: The Philosophy of Peter Achinstein

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780199738625
eISBN:
9780199894642
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199738625.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

In 1959, Peter Achinstein left Harvard and his Logical Positivist-influenced teachers and spent a year working at Oxford during the heyday of ordinary language philosophy. In his writings on evidence ... More


Defending Principlism

Nathaniel Jason Goldberg

in Kantian Conceptual Geography

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
December 2014
ISBN:
9780190215385
eISBN:
9780190215408
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190215385.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Chapter Six defends Subjective Principlism against its most important challenges. It does so by considering the history of and arguments against Subjective Principlism, and then demonstrating that ... More


Russellian Monism II

Derk Pereboom

in Consciousness and the Prospects of Physicalism

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780199764037
eISBN:
9780199895243
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199764037.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

In Chapter 6 I critically examine arguments by Kant and David Lewis for our lacking a significant sort of knowledge of absolutely intrinsic properties, whereupon I suggest and endorse an alternative ... More


“Indigestible Residues”: Ludwig Wittgenstein, Aesthetic Negativism, and the Incompleteness of Logical Positivism

Michael LeMahieu

in Fictions of Fact and Value: The Erasure of Logical Positivism in American Literature, 1945-1975

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780199890408
eISBN:
9780199369652
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199890408.003.0001
Subject:
Literature, American, 20th Century Literature, 20th-century and Contemporary Literature

In the literary response to logical positivism, Ludwig Wittgenstein figures both as inspiration and opposition, as the philosopher of what is the case and as the poet of what is not. Wittgenstein’s ... More


Carnap’s Legacy for the Contemporary Metaontological Debate

Matti Eklund

in Ontology after Carnap

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780199661985
eISBN:
9780191748363
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199661985.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, History of Philosophy

The main topic of the chapter is the relation between Carnap’s metaontological ideas and the metaontological ideas prominent in the contemporary discussion that tend to get associated with Carnap. It ... More


Carnap’s Programme

Jon Williamson

in Lectures on Inductive Logic

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
March 2017
ISBN:
9780199666478
eISBN:
9780191749292
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199666478.003.0004
Subject:
Mathematics, Logic / Computer Science / Mathematical Philosophy

Chapter 4 discusses the most influential approach to inductive logic, developed by Rudolf Carnap. Carnap’s strategy is outlined and then evaluated. It is shown that while this approach can capture ... More


Methodology in Late Nineteenth- and Early Twentieth-Century Analytic Philosophy

Scott Soames

in Analytic Philosophy in America: And Other Historical and Contemporary Essays

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691160726
eISBN:
9781400850464
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691160726.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, American Philosophy

This chapter discusses the methodology that guided logico-linguistic analysis from Gottlob Frege’s 1879 Begriffsschrift to Rudolf Carnap’s 1934 The Logical Syntax of Language. In the first four ... More


“Eternal Things”: Saul Bellow, the Infinite Longings of the Soul, and the Shortcomings of Logical Positivism

Michael LeMahieu

in Fictions of Fact and Value: The Erasure of Logical Positivism in American Literature, 1945-1975

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780199890408
eISBN:
9780199369652
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199890408.003.0004
Subject:
Literature, American, 20th Century Literature, 20th-century and Contemporary Literature

Saul Bellow’s explicit engagement with logical positivism in the short story “Zetland: By a Character Witness” – Bellow’s unfinished tribute to his childhood friend, intellectual companion, and ... More


Towards a New Epistemology

Bas C. van Fraassen

in Laws and Symmetry

Published in print:
1989
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198248606
eISBN:
9780191597459
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198248601.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

The underground river of probabilism, slowly growing in force over three centuries, burst forth above ground in the twentieth century and brought new hope for epistemology. Probabilism sees its ... More


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