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Rules for the Knowledge Operator

Jonathan L. Kvanvig

in The Knowability Paradox

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
May 2006
ISBN:
9780199282593
eISBN:
9780191603587
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199282595.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics

This chapter examines the idea that the logical principles governing the knowledge operator are the root cause of the paradox. There are two such principles: the first is that knowledge implies ... More


Nozick on Knowledge *

Saul A. Kripke

in Philosophical Troubles: Collected Papers, Volume 1

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199730155
eISBN:
9780199918430
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199730155.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, General

This chapter analyzes Robert Nozick's theory on knowledge. Nozick advocates what has been called an “externalist,” or “reliabilist,” analysis of knowledge. In his text Nozick states his indebtedness ... More


Rawls and Utilitarianism *

Samuel Scheffler

in Boundaries and Allegiances: Problems of Justice and Responsibility in Liberal Thought

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199257676
eISBN:
9780191600197
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199257671.003.0010
Subject:
Political Science, Political Theory

After reviewing John Rawls's arguments against utilitarianism in A Theory of Justice and then examining Michael Sandel's and Robert Nozick's criticisms of those arguments, Scheffler points to three ... More


Knowledge and Truth Tracking

José L. Zalabardo

in Scepticism and Reliable Belief

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199656073
eISBN:
9780191742132
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199656073.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Philosophy of Science

This chapter argues that there are three main respects in which Robert Nozick’s account of knowledge needs to be revised. First, a plausible theory of knowledge must attach much more importance to ... More


Procedural Justice

David Miller

in Market, State, and Community: Theoretical Foundations of Market Socialism

Published in print:
1990
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198278641
eISBN:
9780191599903
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198278640.003.0003
Subject:
Political Science, Political Theory

Libertarians such as Nozick and Hayek define justice in procedural terms. Nozick takes for granted the liberal idea of property, but in fact this is historically contingent and other conceptions of ... More


Nozick on Free Will

Michael E. Bratman

in Structures of Agency: Essays

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195187717
eISBN:
9780199893058
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195187717.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

The idea of a reflexive self-governing policy that can be underdetermined by value judgment, and that plays a role in Lockean identity, is similar in important respects to Robert Nozick's idea of a ... More


Libertarianism without Inequality

Michael Otsuka

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199243952
eISBN:
9780191598142
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199243956.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

The aim of this book is to vindicate left‐libertarianism, a political philosophy which combines stringent rights of control over one's own mind, body, and life with egalitarian rights of ownership of ... More


Exceptions to Libertarian Natural Rights

William J. Talbott

in Human Rights and Human Well-Being

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780195173482
eISBN:
9780199872176
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195173482.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Political Philosophy

This chapter shows how libertarianism can be seen to be a moral theory that explains exceptions to earlier moral norms and principles and the chapter shows how various exceptions to libertarian ... More


Market Neutrality

David Miller

in Market, State, and Community: Theoretical Foundations of Market Socialism

Published in print:
1990
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198278641
eISBN:
9780191599903
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198278640.003.0004
Subject:
Political Science, Political Theory

Liberals often claim that the state should be neutral between individual conceptions of the good life, and use this claim to defend economic markets. Neutrality can refer to the reasons offered for ... More


Self‐Ownership and Equality

Michael Otsuka

in Libertarianism without Inequality

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199243952
eISBN:
9780191598142
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199243956.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

Delineates the nature of a libertarian right of self‐ownership. Assesses Robert Nozick's claim that taxation is on a par with forced labour. Contends that the most defensible version of the Lockean ... More


The Benefit of Another's Pains: Original Acquisition and Parasitic Action

Gijs van Donselaar

in The Right to Exploit: Parasitism, Scarcity, and Basic Income

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195140392
eISBN:
9780199871483
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195140392.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

David Gauthier's “Lockean proviso” implied the prohibition of parasitic actions—actions that improve one's position through the worsening of the position of someone else. This chapter tests the ... More


Passive Equality

Todd May

in The Political Thought of Jacques Rancière: Creating Equality

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780748635320
eISBN:
9780748671922
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press
DOI:
10.3366/edinburgh/9780748635320.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Political Philosophy

This chapter demonstrates that mainstream political philosophy is a philosophy of political passivity. It specifically argues that it is a philosophy of passive equality. It provides a preliminary ... More


Freedom

David Miller

in Market, State, and Community: Theoretical Foundations of Market Socialism

Published in print:
1990
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198278641
eISBN:
9780191599903
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198278640.003.0002
Subject:
Political Science, Political Theory

Libertarians defend a narrow version of negative freedom. Hayek defines freedom as the absence of coercion, but this position is shown to be untenable. A more common view is that laws and other such ... More


Property Rights: Principles of Legitimation

Rajshree Chandra

in Knowledge as Property: Issues in the Moral Grounding of Intellectual Property Rights

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
October 2012
ISBN:
9780198065579
eISBN:
9780199080120
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198065579.003.0002
Subject:
Law, Intellectual Property, IT, and Media Law

This chapter examines two justificatory theories of private property: self-ownership and utility. It outlines the fundamental principles of these theories as reflected in John Locke's labour theory, ... More


Introduction

Jeremy Waldron

in The Right to Private Property

Published in print:
1990
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198239376
eISBN:
9780191679902
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198239376.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Political Philosophy

This introductory chapter sets out the purpose of the book, which is to address the issue of the justification of private property. It asks whether individuals have a right to private property, or ... More


Event‐Causal Accounts and the Problem of Explanation

Randolph Clarke

in Libertarian Accounts of Free Will

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
January 2005
ISBN:
9780195159875
eISBN:
9780199835010
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/019515987X.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter begins an examination of event-causal libertarian accounts, which require nondeterministic event causation. This type of view offers satisfactory causal accounts of acting for reasons ... More


Coercion and Integrity *

Elinor Mason

in Oxford Studies in Normative Ethics: Volume 2

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199662951
eISBN:
9780191745195
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199662951.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

Williams argues that impartial moral theories undermine agents' integrity by making them responsible for allowings as well as doings. This chapter argues that in some cases of allowings, where there ... More


RESPONSIBILITY AND DESERT

Ingmar Persson

in The Retreat of Reason: A dilemma in the philosophy of life

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
February 2006
ISBN:
9780199276905
eISBN:
9780191603198
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199276900.003.0035
Subject:
Philosophy, General

This chapter starts by analysing the concept of desert along lines suggested by Joel Feinberg. It then argues that this concept is applicable to us only if we have ultimate responsibility, i.e., ... More


Alternative Justifications for Welfare and Equality

James P. Sterba

in From Rationality to Equality

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199580767
eISBN:
9780191745836
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199580767.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy, Political Philosophy

Now other philosophers too have attempted to provide a justification of welfare and substantial equality. This chapter considers attempts to do so by Ronald Dworkin, John Harris, Jeremy Waldron, ... More


Between Utility and Rights

H. L. A. Hart

in Essays in Jurisprudence and Philosophy

Published in print:
1983
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198253884
eISBN:
9780191681431
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198253884.003.0010
Subject:
Law, Philosophy of Law

This chapter examines a theory of rights on the relatively uncontroversial concepts of the distinctness of individual persons or their claim to equal respect. Two examples, both American, are taken ... More


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