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Democracy or State-Building? 1906–1941

Ali Gheissari and Vali Nasr

in Democracy in Iran: History and the Quest for Liberty

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
May 2006
ISBN:
9780195189674
eISBN:
9780199784134
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195189671.003.0002
Subject:
Political Science, Democratization

This chapter discusses the Constitutional Revolution of 1906-1911 and subsequent efforts to balance the demand for a viable state with the demand for democracy and rule of law. It then traces the ... More


The Life and Times of the Shah

Gholam RezaAfkhami

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520253285
eISBN:
9780520942165
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520253285.001.0001
Subject:
History, Middle East History

This biography is an insider's account of the life and times of Mohammad Reza Shah, who ruled from 1941 to 1979 as the last Iranian monarch. The book takes advantage of unparalleled access to a large ... More


Reza Shah, the Modernizing Strongman

Ariane M. Tabatabai

in No Conquest, No Defeat: Iran's National Security Strategy

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
January 2021
ISBN:
9780197534601
eISBN:
9780197554586
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780197534601.003.0003
Subject:
Political Science, Middle Eastern Politics

This chapter explores the legacy of Reza Shah, the founder of the Pahlavi dynasty—the last dynasty to rule over Iran. It provides an overview of key military and other reforms undertaken by the king ... More


Ascending the Throne

Gholam R. Afkhami

in The Life and Times of the Shah

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520253285
eISBN:
9780520942165
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520253285.003.0004
Subject:
History, Middle East History

In 1939, as war broke out in Europe, Russia was Iran's main worry. Communism, a mystery to most Iranians, was generally disliked because it was “godless,” clearly to be shunned and condemned. Its ... More


Father and Son

Gholam R. Afkhami

in The Life and Times of the Shah

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520253285
eISBN:
9780520942165
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520253285.003.0002
Subject:
History, Middle East History

This chapter describes the relationship between Mohammad Reza and his father Reza Kahn. Mohammad Reza was his father's love. His birth eclipsed all else in the household, including his twin sister, ... More


Nationalizing Oil

Gholam R. Afkhami

in The Life and Times of the Shah

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520253285
eISBN:
9780520942165
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520253285.003.0006
Subject:
History, Middle East History

If Reza Shah was the greatest influence on his son's attitude toward power and governance, Mohammad Mosaddeq was a close second. Reza Shah was father, Mosaddeq father figure. Reza Shah had told his ... More


The Road to Officialdom

Reza Zia-Ebrahimi

in The Emergence of Iranian Nationalism: Race and the Politics of Dislocation

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
September 2016
ISBN:
9780231175760
eISBN:
9780231541114
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231175760.003.0007
Subject:
History, Middle East History

Chapter 7 covers the rise of dislocative nationalism in the aftermath of the constitutional period and the rise of the Pahlavi state. It shows how dislocative nationalism, initially a marginal ... More


Iran, 1979

Zoltan Barany

in How Armies Respond to Revolutions and Why

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2018
ISBN:
9780691157368
eISBN:
9781400880997
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691157368.003.0002
Subject:
Political Science, Security Studies

This chapter explains why Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi’s Imperial Armed Forces (IAF) were unwilling or unable to prop up the crumbling edifice of his regime. It draws on the main contours of the ... More


The Man

Gholam R. Afkhami

in The Life and Times of the Shah

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520253285
eISBN:
9780520942165
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520253285.003.0003
Subject:
History, Middle East History

Mohammad Reza acquired many of his father's habits, though Mohammad Reza was shy and reserved even when at the apogee of power. As crown prince, Mohammad Reza had been taught to be Spartan in his ... More


Women and Rights

Gholam R. Afkhami

in The Life and Times of the Shah

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520253285
eISBN:
9780520942165
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520253285.003.0011
Subject:
History, Middle East History

The “woman question” in Iran was only sporadically touched on in the nineteenth century. Patriarchy dictated the norms by which woman lived, and the clerics, managing education, justice, and culture, ... More


Introduction

Mikiya Koyagi

in Iran in Motion: Mobility, Space, and the Trans-Iranian Railway

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
September 2021
ISBN:
9781503613133
eISBN:
9781503627673
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Stanford University Press
DOI:
10.11126/stanford/9781503613133.003.0001
Subject:
History, Middle East History

The introduction provides an overview of the book. Rather than seeing the Trans-Iranian Railway exclusively in the context of national integration under an authoritarian state, this book analyzes the ... More


Azerbaijan

Gholam R. Afkhami

in The Life and Times of the Shah

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520253285
eISBN:
9780520942165
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520253285.003.0005
Subject:
History, Middle East History

The Allied invasion of Iran on 25 August 1941 made the preservation of Iran's independence and territorial integrity the government's most urgent task. Reza Shah's letter to President Roosevelt had ... More


A One-Man Coup: February 1921

Hazem Kandil

in The Power Triangle: Military, Security, and Politics in Regime Change

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
December 2016
ISBN:
9780190239206
eISBN:
9780190239237
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190239206.003.0002
Subject:
Sociology, Politics, Social Movements and Social Change, Comparative and Historical Sociology

This chapter examines the formation of the Pahlavi regime in Iran during its first two decades, beginning with the 1921 coup that enabled Colonel Reza Khan to seize power and ending with his downfall ... More


Triumph

Reza Zia-Ebrahimi

in The Emergence of Iranian Nationalism: Race and the Politics of Dislocation

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
September 2016
ISBN:
9780231175760
eISBN:
9780231541114
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231175760.003.0008
Subject:
History, Middle East History

The epilogue traces the evolution of dislocative nationalism throughout the twentieth century.


The United States and Iran in the Cold War

Roham Alvandi

in Nixon, Kissinger, and the Shah: The United States and Iran in the Cold War

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
June 2014
ISBN:
9780199375691
eISBN:
9780199375721
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199375691.003.0002
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century, Middle East History

This chapter discusses the origins of the US-Iran relationship during World War II and the 1946 Azerbaijan crisis. In the early days of the Cold War, Mohammad Reza Shah and his prime ministers ... More


The Iranian Revolution

Milo Jones and Philippe Silberzahn

in Constructing Cassandra: Reframing Intelligence Failure at the CIA, 1947-2001

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780804785808
eISBN:
9780804787154
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Stanford University Press
DOI:
10.11126/stanford/9780804785808.003.0004
Subject:
Political Science, Conflict Politics and Policy

This chapter presents an overview of the CIA's analysis of events in Iran that led to the Islamic revolution in 1978–79. It first documents the scale and scope of the intelligence failure concerning ... More


A Light Footprint in Bahrain

Geoffrey F. Gresh

in Gulf Security and the U.S. Military: Regime Survival and the Politics of Basing

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
January 2016
ISBN:
9780804794206
eISBN:
9780804795067
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Stanford University Press
DOI:
10.11126/stanford/9780804794206.003.0004
Subject:
Political Science, Conflict Politics and Policy

After declaring independence in 1971, Bahrain signed a basing agreement with the United States, prompted by external security fears associated with Iran’s desire to annex the tiny island nation. But ... More


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