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Reward-Dependent Learning

Andreas Heinz

in A New Understanding of Mental Disorders: Computational Models for Dimensional Psychiatry

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9780262036894
eISBN:
9780262342841
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262036894.003.0003
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience

In the third chapter, reward dependent instrumental learning and its computational modelling is explained. Reward prediction errors are encoded by phasic dopamine release and specific paradigms ... More


What Desires Are

Nomy Arpaly and Timothy Schroeder

in In Praise of Desire

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780199348169
eISBN:
9780199348183
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199348169.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

To intrinsically desire that P is to be in a state that is both a natural kind and that causes the effects (motivational, emotional, and cognitive) associated with intrinsically desiring that P, ... More


Cannabinoids, Reward, and Addiction

Linda A. Parker

in Cannabinoids and the Brain

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9780262035798
eISBN:
9780262338448
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262035798.003.0006
Subject:
Neuroscience, Research and Theory

Dopamine is a neurotransmitter critical for reward processing and is elevated by most addicting drugs. The effect of THC and other CB1 agonists moderately elevate dopamine in reward related regions ... More


Introduction

Andreas Heinz

in A New Understanding of Mental Disorders: Computational Models for Dimensional Psychiatry

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9780262036894
eISBN:
9780262342841
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262036894.003.0001
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience

In the introduction, a philosophically informed concept of mental disorders is presented. In order to define a clinically relevant mental malady, it suggests to focus on functional impairments ... More


Learning Mechanisms in Affective Disorders

Andreas Heinz

in A New Understanding of Mental Disorders: Computational Models for Dimensional Psychiatry

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9780262036894
eISBN:
9780262342841
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262036894.003.0009
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience

Affective disorders are described with respect to a model of positive and negative affect, which suggests that clinical depression may result both from an impairment of reward anticipation and ... More


Human Single Neuron Reward Processing in the Basal Ganglia and Anterior Cingulate

Itzhak Fried

in Single Neuron Studies of the Human Brain: Probing Cognition

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
January 2015
ISBN:
9780262027205
eISBN:
9780262323994
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262027205.003.0012
Subject:
Neuroscience, Research and Theory

Animals are fundamentally governed by rewards. It is a central component of our behavior and the pursuit of which represents the integration of a broad range of cognitive capacities. These functions ... More


Appetite, Consumption, and Choice in the Human Brain

Knutson Brian and Karmarkar Uma

in The Interdisciplinary Science of Consumption

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
January 2015
ISBN:
9780262027670
eISBN:
9780262325387
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262027670.003.0009
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience

Although linked, researchers have long distinguished appetitive from consummatory phases of reward processing. Recent improvements in the spatial and temporal resolution of neuroimaging techniques ... More


Incentive Salience in Addiction and Over-Consumption

Michael J. F. Robinson, Terry E. Robinson, and Kent C. Berridge

in The Interdisciplinary Science of Consumption

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
January 2015
ISBN:
9780262027670
eISBN:
9780262325387
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262027670.003.0010
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience

Incentive salience (‘wanting’) normally provides an ‘oomph’ that spurs attention to and motivation for objects of desire. But when amplified excessively by brain mesolimbic sensitization, a set of ... More


Balancing Consumption: Brain Insights from PleasureCycles

L. Kringelbach Morten

in The Interdisciplinary Science of Consumption

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
January 2015
ISBN:
9780262027670
eISBN:
9780262325387
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262027670.003.0011
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience

Pleasure is central to the survival of individuals and species. The main challenge for the brain is to successfully balance the survival-related decision-making involved in optimizing resource ... More


Introduction: Toward an Interdisciplinary Science of Consumption

D. Preston Stephanie, Morten L. Kringelbach, and Knutson Brian

in The Interdisciplinary Science of Consumption

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
January 2015
ISBN:
9780262027670
eISBN:
9780262325387
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262027670.003.0017
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience

Consumption is the endpoint of any resource-allocation decision in which individuals acquire something for their own use. This can occur in conserved and ancient forms (e.g., ingesting food, drinks, ... More


The Freedom to Choose and Drug Addiction

P. Read Montague

in Moral Psychology, Volume 4: Free Will and Moral Responsibility

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
September 2014
ISBN:
9780262026680
eISBN:
9780262321488
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262026680.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

Montague proposes a computational model to understand addiction. His key idea is a special kind of reward prediction error signal in addicts. In his comments, Yaffe discusses what Montague's work on ... More


Financing later life: pensions, care, housing equity and the new politics of old age

Debora Price and Lynne Livsey

in Social Policy Review 25: Analysis and debate in social policy, 2013

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9781447312741
eISBN:
9781447312857
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Policy Press
DOI:
10.1332/policypress/9781447312741.003.0004
Subject:
Social Work, Social Policy

In Chapter Four, Deborah Price and Lynne Livsey examine ‘the politics of old age’ in the contemporary UK setting. In particular, they analyse recent developments in the financing of later life, ... More


Addiction and Blameworthiness

Timothy Schroeder and Nomy Arpaly

in Addiction and Self-Control: Perspectives from Philosophy, Psychology, and Neuroscience

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780199862580
eISBN:
9780199369638
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199862580.003.0011
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science, Moral Philosophy

In a series of publications, we have advanced the idea that people are blameworthy for acting badly in either of two ways: acting on a desire for the wrong or bad, or acting in a way that expresses a ... More


Addiction

Nomy Arpaly and Timothy Schroeder

in In Praise of Desire

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780199348169
eISBN:
9780199348183
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199348169.003.0012
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

Addicts appear to have very strong desires for their addictive goods, and so to display a worrying degree of indifference to morally important ends when they choose their addictive goods over such ... More


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