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The Geneva Conventions of 1949

Geoffrey Blest

in War and Law since 1945

Published in print:
1997
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198206996
eISBN:
9780191677427
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198206996.003.0004
Subject:
History, Military History

This chapter discusses the systematic review of the Geneva side of the law which issued in the four Geneva Conventions of the summer of 1949. It notes that the review is discreetly orchestrated by ... More


The Amateurs Try their Hand: The Provision of Relief Parcels, 1940–1941

Neville Wylie

in Barbed Wire Diplomacy: Britain, Germany, and the Politics of Prisoners of War 1939-1945

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780199547593
eISBN:
9780191720581
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199547593.003.0005
Subject:
History, European Modern History

This chapter addresses the ‘parcels crisis’ of 1940–41 and shows how the collapse of the supply of relief parcels to German POW camps after the fall of France galvanized the prisoners and their ... More


Linking to Public Health Nursing the Red Cross Way, 1919 to 1930

Christine Ardalan

in The Public Health Nurses of Jim Crow Florida

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
May 2020
ISBN:
9780813066158
eISBN:
9780813058368
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Florida
DOI:
10.5744/florida/9780813066158.003.0004
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

This chapter explores the influence of the Red Cross Nursing Service in Florida after World War I when the American Red Cross focused on public health nursing. Central leadership from its Washington, ... More


Making the Geneva Conventions

Geoffrey Blest

in War and Law since 1945

Published in print:
1997
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198206996
eISBN:
9780191677427
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198206996.003.0005
Subject:
History, Military History

This chapter discusses the major laws that form part of the making of the Geneva Conventions. It discusses the appurtenant laws and organizations that promote protection of civilians. It notes that ... More


The Expansible Nation-State

Elisabeth S. Clemens

in Civic Gifts: Voluntarism and the Making of the American Nation-State

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
September 2020
ISBN:
9780226559360
eISBN:
9780226670973
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226670973.003.0005
Subject:
Sociology, Comparative and Historical Sociology

Over the first decades of the twentieth century, this model of urban governance was harnessed to unprecedented crises, both local and international. The 1906 San Francisco Earthquake inspired a ... More


The Spread of Humanitarian Culture Across Borders

Shai M. Dromi

in Above the Fray: The Red Cross and the Making of the Humanitarian NGO Sector

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
September 2020
ISBN:
9780226680101
eISBN:
9780226680385
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226680385.003.0003
Subject:
Sociology, Comparative and Historical Sociology

The international Red Cross movement emerged at a period of rising nationalism in politics and culture, and yet the movement spread across borders with considerable ease. This chapter examines how ... More


Good Citizens of a World Power: Postwar Reconfigurations of the Obligation to Give

Elisabeth S. Clemens

in Boundaries of the State In Us History

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780226277646
eISBN:
9780226277813
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226277813.003.0008
Subject:
History, Political History

In times of crisis, domestic or international, the capacity of American government has been enhanced by the large-scale mobilization of civic benevolence. Although the New Deal is often envisioned as ... More


“Everything but Government Submarines”: Limits of a Semi-governmental System

Elisabeth S. Clemens

in Civic Gifts: Voluntarism and the Making of the American Nation-State

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
September 2020
ISBN:
9780226559360
eISBN:
9780226670973
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226670973.003.0006
Subject:
Sociology, Comparative and Historical Sociology

The mobilization for the First World War had been organized through a powerful configuration of voluntary associations and national agencies. After the war, what use could be made of these ... More


The People’s Partnership

Elisabeth S. Clemens

in Civic Gifts: Voluntarism and the Making of the American Nation-State

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
September 2020
ISBN:
9780226559360
eISBN:
9780226670973
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226670973.003.0008
Subject:
Sociology, Comparative and Historical Sociology

The mobilization for World War Two activated many of the public-private configurations that had been so important in the First World War. Yet there were questions of the actual contribution of all ... More


The Spread of Humanitarian Logics into New Domains

Shai M. Dromi

in Above the Fray: The Red Cross and the Making of the Humanitarian NGO Sector

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
September 2020
ISBN:
9780226680101
eISBN:
9780226680385
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226680385.003.0004
Subject:
Sociology, Comparative and Historical Sociology

The nascent transnational humanitarian field relied in many ways on actors in other fields who affirmed its importance and independence, such as legal scholars, nursing professionals, and ... More


Sans-Frontiérisme and the Rise of “New Humanitarianism”

Shai M. Dromi

in Above the Fray: The Red Cross and the Making of the Humanitarian NGO Sector

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
September 2020
ISBN:
9780226680101
eISBN:
9780226680385
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226680385.003.0005
Subject:
Sociology, Comparative and Historical Sociology

To what extent does the contemporary transnational humanitarian field continue to bear the mark of the religious faith of its founders? This chapter shows that although the field has seen significant ... More


In the Shadow of the New Deal

Elisabeth S. Clemens

in Civic Gifts: Voluntarism and the Making of the American Nation-State

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
September 2020
ISBN:
9780226559360
eISBN:
9780226670973
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226670973.003.0007
Subject:
Sociology, Comparative and Historical Sociology

The Great Depression brought unemployment and misery on a scale that overwhelmed the capacity of voluntary as well as municipal resources for emergency relief. Government relief efforts were ... More


The Réveil and the Founding of the Red Cross

Shai M. Dromi

in Above the Fray: The Red Cross and the Making of the Humanitarian NGO Sector

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
September 2020
ISBN:
9780226680101
eISBN:
9780226680385
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226680385.003.0002
Subject:
Sociology, Comparative and Historical Sociology

The early Red Cross movement promoted a controversial idea: establishing a sector of nongovernmental and impartial volunteer societies, which would be considered neutral parties on the battlefield. ... More


Humanitarian Intervention in the Balkans

Nicholas Morris*

in Humanitarian Intervention and International Relations

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
April 2004
ISBN:
9780199267217
eISBN:
9780191601118
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199267219.003.0006
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

Assesses the success of the two humanitarian interventions in the Balkans – Bosnia in 1995 and Kosovo in 1999 – from the perspective of humanitarian organizations. It argues how, ironically, the ... More


Tracing Services

Jenny Edkins

in Missing: Persons and Politics

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780801450297
eISBN:
9780801462795
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Cornell University Press
DOI:
10.7591/cornell/9780801450297.003.0003
Subject:
Political Science, Political Theory

This chapter examines the official and unofficial tracing services that were set up in Europe in the aftermath of World War II as well as the tensions and disagreements that the demand to trace the ... More


Humanitarian Practice and the Laws of War

Geoffrey Blest

in War and Law since 1945

Published in print:
1997
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198206996
eISBN:
9780191677427
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198206996.003.0008
Subject:
History, Military History

This chapter discusses the law of armed conflict or the doctrine of ‘belligerent equality’ which applies equally to all parties to an armed conflict, whether or not the international community ... More


Inter Arma Caritas: The Cultural Origins of Humanitarian NGOs

Shai M. Dromi

in Above the Fray: The Red Cross and the Making of the Humanitarian NGO Sector

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
September 2020
ISBN:
9780226680101
eISBN:
9780226680385
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226680385.003.0101
Subject:
Sociology, Comparative and Historical Sociology

The Red Cross emerged in 1863 to assist wounded soldiers on the battlefield, and received widespread acclaim. However, mid-nineteenth-century Europe was already brimming with ideas for improving ... More


The Humanitarian Space

Shai M. Dromi

in Above the Fray: The Red Cross and the Making of the Humanitarian NGO Sector

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
September 2020
ISBN:
9780226680101
eISBN:
9780226680385
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226680385.003.0001
Subject:
Sociology, Comparative and Historical Sociology

Humanitarian NGOs receive wide support from donors, policymakers, and diplomats, despite a lively scholarly debate about their effectiveness and ethical grounding. How did the humanitarian NGO sector ... More


Above the Fray: The Red Cross and the Making of the Humanitarian NGO Sector

Shai M. Dromi

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
September 2020
ISBN:
9780226680101
eISBN:
9780226680385
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226680385.001.0001
Subject:
Sociology, Comparative and Historical Sociology

Humanitarian nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) present themselves as servants of the most longstanding and universal human values. And yet, the idea that NGOs like Médecins sans Frontières, ... More


Mobilizing a Volunteer Army

Julia F. Irwin

in Making the World Safe: The American Red Cross and a Nation's Humanitarian Awakening

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
March 2015
ISBN:
9780199766406
eISBN:
9780190254469
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199766406.003.0007
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

This chapter focuses on the American Red Cross's (ARC) phenomenal growth between 1917 and 1918. It shows how the ARC's leaders sold the organization to the U.S. public and worked to define foreign ... More


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