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Local Science and Organic Processes

Adriana Petryna

in Life Exposed: Biological Citizens after Chernobyl

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691151663
eISBN:
9781400845095
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691151663.003.0006
Subject:
Anthropology, Social and Cultural Anthropology

This chapter examines the ethical positions of local scientists and clinicians from the perspective of Soviet and post-Soviet scientific trajectories as well as in relation to international ... More


National Level: Governance Challenged

Daniel P. Aldrich

in Black Wave: How Networks and Governance Shaped Japan's 3/11 Disasters

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
May 2020
ISBN:
9780226638263
eISBN:
9780226638577
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226638577.003.0005
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

Chapter 5 steps one level up from prefectures and looks at the national context of the 3/11 triple disasters. This chapter focuses on the decisions made by the central government before, during, and ... More


Cyclotrons

Angela N. H. Creager

in Life Atomic: A History of Radioisotopes in Science and Medicine

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780226017808
eISBN:
9780226017945
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226017945.003.0002
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter focuses on developments in E. O. Lawrence’s Radiation Laboratory to illustrate the cyclotron-based system of radioisotope production. By 1940, biomedical uses of radioisotopes involved ... More


Promoting the Peaceful Atom

Scott Kaufman

in Project Plowshare: The Peaceful Use of Nuclear Explosives in Cold War America

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780801451256
eISBN:
9780801465833
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Cornell University Press
DOI:
10.7591/cornell/9780801451256.003.0011
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

This introductory chapter outlines how President Dwight D. Eisenhower proposed a more benign use for nuclear explosives, calling it Atoms for Peace. His proposal caught the attention of scientists at ... More


Rebalancing Our Climate: The Future Starts Today

Eelco J. Rohling

Published in print:
2022
Published Online:
October 2021
ISBN:
9780197502556
eISBN:
9780197502587
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780197502556.001.0001
Subject:
Environmental Science, Climate

Over recent decades, a wide variety of studies and assessment reports has portrayed a stark picture of humanity’s detrimental impacts on our planet’s life and environmental health. Climate change is ... More


Ethical Judgment

in Contested Medicine: Cancer Research and the Military

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
March 2013
ISBN:
9780226465319
eISBN:
9780226465333
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226465333.003.0009
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter follows in detail Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments (ACHRE)'s deliberations in the Eugene Saenger case. President Bill Clinton created the ACHRE to assess the history of ... More


Automation’s Finest Hour: Radar and System Integration in World War II

David A. Mindell

in Systems, Experts, and Computers: The Systems Approach in Management and Engineering, World War II and After

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262082853
eISBN:
9780262275873
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262082853.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter examines a particular set of technical and institutional developments during World War II to show how the radar, as a new instrument of perception, gave rise to a new approach to ... More


Physicians’ Financial Incentives to Personalize Medicine

David H. Howard, Jason Hockenberry, and Guy David

in Economic Dimensions of Personalized and Precision Medicine

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
September 2019
ISBN:
9780226611068
eISBN:
9780226611235
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226611235.003.0009
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Microeconomics

Advocates for “personalized medicine” tests claim they can reduce health care spending by identifying patients unlikely to benefit from costly treatments. But most tests are imperfect, and so ... More


X-rays in the Lab and Field

Helen Anne Curry

in Evolution Made to Order: Plant Breeding and Technological Innovation in Twentieth-Century America

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9780226390086
eISBN:
9780226390116
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226390116.003.0005
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Speculation about the uses of induced mutations in genetics research as well as in practical plant breeding spurred significant biological experimentation with x-rays in the 1920s and 1930s. As this ... More


Making the Best Use of Beamtime

Eaton E. Lattman, Thomas D. Grant, and Edward H. Snell

in Biological Small Angle Scattering: Theory and Practice

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
September 2018
ISBN:
9780199670871
eISBN:
9780191749575
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199670871.003.0006
Subject:
Physics, Soft Matter / Biological Physics

Extracting information from scattering data is very sensitive to the quality of the data. In this chapter data quality characterization is described, including initial data processing procedures to ... More


Examples of Data Collection and Processing

Eaton E. Lattman, Thomas D. Grant, and Edward H. Snell

in Biological Small Angle Scattering: Theory and Practice

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
September 2018
ISBN:
9780199670871
eISBN:
9780191749575
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199670871.003.0007
Subject:
Physics, Soft Matter / Biological Physics

This chapter provides a detailed example of SAXS data analysis from a well behaving system. After collecting the SAXS data, several data analysis procedures are illustrated to ensure the data were of ... More


Energy flow in organisms

Andrew Clarke

in Principles of Thermal Ecology: Temperature, Energy, and Life

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780199551668
eISBN:
9780191847936
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199551668.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

An organism is an open thermodynamic system exchanging both energy and materials with its environment. Organisms exchange energy with their environment by radiation, conduction, convection and ... More


A First, Fast Visit to the Universe

Alvaro De Rújula

in Enjoy Our Universe: You Have No Other Choice

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
February 2020
ISBN:
9780198817802
eISBN:
9780191859366
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198817802.003.0006
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

This initial visit to the Universe is fast but not short. The fact that looking far away is looking into the past is recalled. There are a lot of things in our Universe, which are introduced here in ... More


Nathan marsh pusey and the affluent university

Morton Keller and Phyllis Keller

in Making Harvard Modern: The Rise of America's University

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195144574
eISBN:
9780197561829
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195144574.003.0014
Subject:
Education, History of Education

on New Year’s Day 1953, James Bryant Conant made known his intention to resign, effective January 23—all of three weeks later. In June the Corporation announced his successor: forty-six-year-old ... More


Ground-based Remote Sensing of Cirrus Clouds

Kenneth Sassen and Gerald Mace

in Cirrus

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195130720
eISBN:
9780197561430
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195130720.003.0012
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Meteorology and Climatology

Cirrus clouds have only recently been recognized as having a significant influence on weather and climate through their impact on the radiative energy budget of the atmosphere. In addition, the ... More


Writing the Experimental Approach Section

Marin S Robinson, Fredricka L Stoller, Molly Constanza-Robinson, and James K Jones

in Write Like a Chemist: A Guide and Resource

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195367423
eISBN:
9780197562437
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195367423.003.0021
Subject:
Chemistry, Study and Communication Skills in Chemistry

This chapter focuses on writing the experimental section of the Project Description, the section in which you tell readers how you will conduct the proposed work. Unlike the experimental section of ... More


The Legal Requirements for Disclosure and Consent: History and Current Status

Jessica W. Berg, Paul S. Appelbaum, Charles W. Lidz, and Lisa S. Parker

in Informed Consent: Legal Theory and Clinical Practice

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195126778
eISBN:
9780197561386
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195126778.003.0009
Subject:
Clinical Medicine and Allied Health, Medical Ethics

The translation of ethical principles into concrete requirements for physicians’ behavior has been largely a function of the courts (usually state, occasionally federal) as they consider patients’ ... More


Initialization Procedures

T. N. Krishnamurti, H. S. Bedi, and V. M. Hardiker

in An Introduction to Global Spectral Modeling

Published in print:
1998
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195094732
eISBN:
9780197560761
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195094732.003.0011
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Meteorology and Climatology

In this chapter we describe two of the most commonly used initialization procedures. These are the dynamic normal mode initialization and the physical initialization methods. Historically, ... More


The Changing Views of a Philosopher of Chemistry on the Question of Reduction

Eric R. Scerri

in Essays in the Philosophy of Chemistry

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780190494599
eISBN:
9780197559666
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190494599.003.0012
Subject:
Chemistry, Theoretical Chemistry

The question of the reduction of chemistry to quantum mechanics has been inextricably linked with the development of the philosophy of chemistry since the field began to develop in the early 1990s. ... More


Propagation Background and Noise

Michael E. Thomas

in Optical Propagation in Linear Media: Atmospheric Gases and Particles, Solid State Components, and Water

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195091618
eISBN:
9780197560679
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195091618.003.0016
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Atmospheric Sciences

Noise from the detector and source is always considered in a system design study. However, as an optical field propagates, it acquires additional noise and background radiance from the path defined ... More


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