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 The Origins of Life and the Cosmos as Evolutionary Themes

Paul F. Lurquin and Linda Stone

in Evolution and Religious Creation Myths: How Scientists Respond

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195315387
eISBN:
9780199785674
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195315387.003.0005
Subject:
Religion, Religion and Society

This chapter demonstrates that the origin of the universe was probabilistic, not preordained, because Heisenberg's uncertainty principle would have been violated at the level of the Big Bang. The ... More


RNA crystallogenesis

Benoît Masquida, Boris François, Andreas Werner, and Eric Westhof

in Macromolecular Crystallography: conventional and high-throughput methods

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198520979
eISBN:
9780191706295
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198520979.003.0014
Subject:
Biology, Biochemistry / Molecular Biology

The number of RNA crystal structures has increased in an exponential manner mainly due to the fact that RNA is increasingly viewed as a predominant part of biological processes such as translation, ... More


GETTING LUCKY WITH A FAULTY GENE: Escape from Simple Retroviruses

Jaap Goudsmit

in Viral Fitness: The Next SARS and West Nile in the Making

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195130348
eISBN:
9780199790166
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195130348.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Microbiology

This chapter discusses simple retroviruses. Simple retroviruses belong to the same RNA virus family as the AIDS virus, but unlike HIV, they do not attack humans. Simple retroviruses have only three ... More


Evolutionary genetics and the emergence of SARS Coronavirus

Edward C. Holmes and Andrew Rambaut

in SARS: A case study in emerging infections

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198568193
eISBN:
9780191718175
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198568193.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Disease Ecology / Epidemiology

RNA viruses experience rates of mutation that are some six orders of magnitude higher than those seen in eukaryotes, which undoubtedly gives them great adaptability. Paradoxically, these mutation ... More


Genes: Starting with DNA

Gordon M. Shepherd

in Creating Modern Neuroscience: The Revolutionary 1950s

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780195391503
eISBN:
9780199863464
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195391503.003.0002
Subject:
Neuroscience, History of Neuroscience

This chapter focuses on the 1950s as the greatest decade in the history of modern biology, which was marked by the discovery of the molecular structure of DNA in 1953. Although the discovery did not ... More


Evolution 101: The Power of Natural Selection

R. Ford Denison

in Darwinian Agriculture: How Understanding Evolution Can Improve Agriculture

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691139500
eISBN:
9781400842810
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691139500.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter considers some definitions and fundamental concepts of evolutionary biology, with a particular focus on the power of natural selection to improve the adaptation of individual plants and ... More


Biochemical consequences of imprinting

Gabriel Horn

in Memory, Imprinting, and the Brain: An Inquiry into Mechanisms

Published in print:
1985
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780198521563
eISBN:
9780191706578
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198521563.003.0002
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter examines biological aspects of imprinting. Several forms of learning involve a response to or the association of a response with a particular experience. In such ‘incremental’ forms of ... More


Autocatalysis in Chemistry and the Origin of Life

John F. Padgett

in The Emergence of Organizations and Markets

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691148670
eISBN:
9781400845552
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691148670.003.0002
Subject:
Sociology, Economic Sociology

This chapter provides an extensive review of the biochemistry literature on the origins of life where the concept of autocatalysis figures most prominently. There is a lively debate in the scientific ... More


Landscapes

Ricard Solé and Santiago F. Elena

in Viruses as Complex Adaptive Systems

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9780691158846
eISBN:
9780691185118
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691158846.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter begins by discussing fitness landscape, an idea first introduced by evolutionary geneticist Sewall Wright and later extended by several other authors. The fitness landscape is defined in ... More


The Origins of Evolutionary Innovations: A Theory of Transformative Change in Living Systems

Andreas Wagner

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199692590
eISBN:
9780191774829
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199692590.001.0001
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

The history of life is a nearly four billion-year-old story of transformative change. This change ranges from dramatic macroscopic innovations such as the evolution of wings or eyes, to a myriad of ... More


Ionotropic Glutamate Receptors: General Characteristics

ROBERT BALÁZS, RICHARD J. BRIDGES, and CARL W. COTMAN

in Excitatory Amino Acid Transmission in Health and Disease

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780195150025
eISBN:
9780199865079
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195150025.003.0002
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems

Ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) are the principal mediators of fast excitatory transmission in the central nervous system. These receptors were originally distinguished by their specific ... More


Kainate Receptors

ROBERT BALÁZS, RICHARD J. BRIDGES, and CARL W. COTMAN

in Excitatory Amino Acid Transmission in Health and Disease

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780195150025
eISBN:
9780199865079
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195150025.003.0004
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems

Both kainate receptors and AMPA receptors mediate fast excitatory synaptic transmission and are associated primarily with voltage-independent channels that gate a depolarizing current mainly carried ... More


Structural and Evolutionary Considerations for Multiple Sequence Alignment of Rna, and the Challenges for Algorithms That Ignore Them

Karl M. Kjer, Usman Roshan, and Joseph J. Gillespie

in Sequence Alignment: Methods, Models, Concepts, and Strategies

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520256972
eISBN:
9780520943742
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520256972.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter discusses the biological motivations for aligning data and explores the limitations of strict algorithmic approaches, focusing on the alignment of structural RNAs, or ribosomal RNA ... More


Emergence of new infectious diseases

Mark Woolhouse and Rustom Antia

in Evolution in Health and Disease

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780199207466
eISBN:
9780191728167
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199207466.003.0016
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter reviews the evolution and ecology of emerging diseases. Human infectious diseases are caused by more than 1400 pathogen species with considerable diversity in lifestyles. Almost all ... More


Kinetic and perturbation studies

Dmitri I. Svergun, Michel H. J. Koch, Peter A. Timmins, and Roland P. May

in Small Angle X-Ray and Neutron Scattering from Solutions of Biological Macromolecules

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199639533
eISBN:
9780191747731
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199639533.003.0008
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography: Physics

Following a brief historical introduction, the difference between dynamics and kinetics is explained to clarify that SAS produces kinetic information. Data interpretation methods are based on those ... More


Single-Molecule Studies of Nucleic Acids and Their Proteins

David Bensimon, Vincent Croquette, Jean-François Allemand, Xavier Michalet, and Terence Strick

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
February 2019
ISBN:
9780198530923
eISBN:
9780191864711
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198530923.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, Soft Matter / Biological Physics

This book presents a comprehensive overview of the foundations of single-molecule studies, based on manipulation of the molecules and observation of these with fluorescent probes. It first discusses ... More


RNA targeting, trafficking, and translation in dendrites: Contribution to synaptic tagging and plasticity

Lindy Barrett and James Eberwine

in Dendrites

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198566564
eISBN:
9780191724206
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198566564.003.0005
Subject:
Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems

It is well established that a subset of proteins can be translated in dendrites independently of the cell soma. Recent studies have begun to elucidate the dynamic regulation and functional ... More


Novel molecules

Andreas Wagner

in The Origins of Evolutionary Innovations: A Theory of Transformative Change in Living Systems

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199692590
eISBN:
9780191774829
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199692590.003.0066
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

A growing body of evidence points to the existence of genotype networks in both protein and RNA phenotypes, and to their importance for evolutionary innovation. This evidence comes from comparative ... More


The Universal Tree of Life: Where to Place Microbes from Hell and Their Viruses?

Patrick Forterre

in Microbes from Hell

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9780226265827
eISBN:
9780226265964
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226265964.003.0005
Subject:
Biology, Microbiology

This chapter starts with a vivid description of the Crafoord prize 2003 ceremony in Stockholm when Carl Woese was honoured. The experiments that led to his discovery of archaea are described, with ... More


Conclusions

David Bensimon, Vincent Croquette, Jean-François Allemand, Xavier Michalet, and Terence Strick

in Single-Molecule Studies of Nucleic Acids and Their Proteins

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
February 2019
ISBN:
9780198530923
eISBN:
9780191864711
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198530923.003.0010
Subject:
Physics, Soft Matter / Biological Physics

Single molecule methods have revolutionized the field of Biophysics. Much of the current applications of these methods are devoted to in vitro studies. It is our hope that the knowledge gained from ... More


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