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Introduction

Gary E. Varner

in Personhood, Ethics, and Animal Cognition: Situating Animals in Hare’s Two Level Utilitarianism

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199758784
eISBN:
9780199949465
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199758784.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, General, Moral Philosophy

This introductory chapter discusses the concept of personhood, and provides a general overview of Hare’s theory. In day-to-day speech, “person” is often used synonymously with “human being,” but in ... More


Personhood, Ethics, and Animal Cognition: Situating Animals in Hare’s Two Level Utilitarianism

Gary E. Varner

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199758784
eISBN:
9780199949465
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199758784.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, General, Moral Philosophy

R.M. Hare was one of the most important ethical theorists in the second half of the 20th century, and one of his graduate students, Peter Singer, became famous for his writings on animals and ... More


The Analytic Perspective on the Idea

Simon Glendinning

in The Idea of Continental Philosophy

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780748624706
eISBN:
9780748671885
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press
DOI:
10.3366/edinburgh/9780748624706.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Political Philosophy

A key claim of the book is that the idea of Continental philosophy has its roots in analytic philosophy. This chapter engages with this theme by exploring texts that belong centrally to the ... More


Assessing Hare’s Theory

Gary E. Varner

in Personhood, Ethics, and Animal Cognition: Situating Animals in Hare’s Two Level Utilitarianism

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199758784
eISBN:
9780199949465
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199758784.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, General, Moral Philosophy

This chapter provides a summary assessment of Hare’s theory, both as an empirical account of actual human moral thinking and as a normative theory of how we ought to think and act. The chapter argues ... More


The Golden Rule and a Theory of Moral Reasoning

Thomas L. Carson

in Lying and Deception: Theory and Practice

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
September 2010
ISBN:
9780199577415
eISBN:
9780191722813
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199577415.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy, General

This chapter develops a theory of moral reasoning in the form of rationality conditions for moral judgments. The chapter argues that moral judges must be: 1) consistent, 2) adequately informed by ... More


Hare on the Logic of Moral Discourse

Gary E. Varner

in Personhood, Ethics, and Animal Cognition: Situating Animals in Hare’s Two Level Utilitarianism

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199758784
eISBN:
9780199949465
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199758784.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, General, Moral Philosophy

Hare argues that all moral thinking is ultimately utilitarian, because moral judgements have three logical properties that, taken together, force us to think like utilitarians. At the same time, he ... More


Replaceability, Population, and Marginal Cases

Gary E. Varner

in Personhood, Ethics, and Animal Cognition: Situating Animals in Hare’s Two Level Utilitarianism

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199758784
eISBN:
9780199949465
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199758784.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, General, Moral Philosophy

This chapter surveys what Peter Singer has said about the “replaceability” of non-persons, emphasizing that there are problems with each of several different accounts he has offered and how these ... More


Harey Animals

Gary E. Varner

in Personhood, Ethics, and Animal Cognition: Situating Animals in Hare’s Two Level Utilitarianism

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199758784
eISBN:
9780199949465
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199758784.003.0011
Subject:
Philosophy, General, Moral Philosophy

This brief concluding chapter compares and contrasts the Harean perspective on animal ethics developed in this book with the views of Peter Singer, who wrote his dissertation with Hare. Singer’s ... More


The Liberal Response

John Allan Knight

in Liberalism versus Postliberalism: The Great Divide in Twentieth-Century Theology

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199969388
eISBN:
9780199301546
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199969388.003.0004
Subject:
Religion, Religious Studies

This chapter describes liberal responses to the falsification challenge, which tended to be a version of one of two sorts. For noncognitivists, religious or theological utterances were never ... More


Better Judgment: Nature and Function

Alfred R. Mele

in Autonomous Agents: From Self-Control to Autonomy

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195150438
eISBN:
9780199869091
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195150430.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

Defends a position on the nature and function of agents’ judgments that it would be best to do something and on the connection between such judgments and intentions. Competing theories advanced by ... More


The Nature of Intuitive-Level System (ILS) Rules

Gary E. Varner

in Personhood, Ethics, and Animal Cognition: Situating Animals in Hare’s Two Level Utilitarianism

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199758784
eISBN:
9780199949465
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199758784.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, General, Moral Philosophy

Hare argues that good utilitarian reasons can be given for not thinking like utilitarians in most normal situations, where several different kinds of rules should be adhered to. This chapter focuses ... More


Does Moral Subjectivism Rest on a Mistake ?

Philippa Foot

in Moral Dilemmas: and Other Topics in Moral Philosophy

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199252848
eISBN:
9780191597411
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/019925284X.003.0013
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

Foot examines the moral theory known as ‘non‐cognitivism’ (a form of subjectivism). Her central thesis is that all non‐cognitivist moral theories are based on the same serious mistake. This mistake ... More


The Virtues Benefit Their Possessor

Rosalind Hursthouse

in On Virtue Ethics

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199247998
eISBN:
9780191597756
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199247994.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

Some familiar objections to the very idea that the virtues benefit their possessor can be quickly cleared away. When we consider the claim in the context of bringing up our own children or reflexion ... More


PRUDENCE: MAXIMIZATION OR IDEALISM?

Ingmar Persson

in The Retreat of Reason: A dilemma in the philosophy of life

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
February 2006
ISBN:
9780199276905
eISBN:
9780191603198
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199276900.003.0027
Subject:
Philosophy, General

This chapter argues that in the realm of prudence, we are not rationally required to maximize the desire-fulfilment of our lives. It is not irrational to adopt ideals, such as the rationalist ideal ... More


Relativistic Ethics: Morality as Politics

Gilbert Harman

in Explaining Value: and Other Essays in Moral Philosophy

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198238041
eISBN:
9780191597626
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198238045.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

A ‘naive view’ of morality says it is based on certain moral demands that everyone accepts, or at least has reasons to accept as demands on everyone, and on which all moral reasons depend. The naive ... More


R.M. Hare

Nick Fotion

in Theory vs. Anti-Theory in Ethics: A Misconceived Conflict

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
June 2014
ISBN:
9780199373529
eISBN:
9780199373543
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199373529.003.0010
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

In contrast to Scanlon, who is almost a grand theorist, Hare is a unapologetically a grand theorist. Hare makes the distinctions of critical and non-critical (for him intuitive) thinking; and the ... More


A Harean Perspective on Humane Sustainable Agriculture

Gary E. Varner

in Personhood, Ethics, and Animal Cognition: Situating Animals in Hare’s Two Level Utilitarianism

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199758784
eISBN:
9780199949465
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199758784.003.0010
Subject:
Philosophy, General, Moral Philosophy

This chapter illustrates the application of Harean utilitarianism to the debate over what constitutes humane sustainable agriculture. My goal is to illustrate how nuanced and contextualized is a ... More


Antirealist Expressivism and Quasi-Realism

Simon Blackburn

David Copp (ed.)

in The Oxford Handbook of Ethical Theory

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
February 2006
ISBN:
9780195147797
eISBN:
9780199785841
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195147790.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

Expressivism is the view that the function of normative sentences is not to represent a kind of fact, but to avow attitudes, prescribe behavior, or the like. The idea can be found in David Hume. In ... More


Jonathan Glover

Alan Ryan

in Ethics and Humanity: Themes from the Philosophy of Jonathan Glover

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780195325195
eISBN:
9780199776412
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195325195.003.0012
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy, General

This brief chapter is a lively, anecdotal appreciation of Jonathan Glover written by a friend and former colleague.


From Prudence to Morality

James Griffin

in Well-Being: Its Meaning, Measurement and Moral Importance

Published in print:
1988
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198248439
eISBN:
9780191597558
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198248431.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

Morality must be rooted in the natural sources of human action. What are they? For instance, how are morality and self‐interest related? How are morality and personal aims related (a question to ... More


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