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The Miracle Myth: Why Belief in the Resurrection and the Supernatural is Unjustified

Larry Shapiro

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9780231178402
eISBN:
9780231542142
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231178402.001.0001
Subject:
Religion, Religion and Society

There are many who believe Moses parted the Red Sea and Jesus came back from the dead. Others are certain that exorcisms occur, ghosts haunt attics, and the blessed can cure the terminally ill. ... More


Introduction to Probability and Random Variables

M. Vidyasagar

in Hidden Markov Processes: Theory and Applications to Biology

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691133157
eISBN:
9781400850518
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691133157.003.0001
Subject:
Mathematics, Probability / Statistics

This chapter provides an introduction to probability and random variables. Probability theory is an attempt to formalize the notion of uncertainty in the outcome of an experiment. For instance, ... More


July 2004: Identity Crisis

Kenneth McK Norrie

in Professor Norrie's Commentaries on Family Law

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2015
ISBN:
9781845861193
eISBN:
9781474406246
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press
DOI:
10.3366/edinburgh/9781845861193.003.0021
Subject:
Law, Family Law

Discusses two cases: Chief Constable of West Yorkshire Police v A [2005] 1 AC 51, in which the House of Lords recognised that a transgender individual must be treated as belonging to her new gender, ... More


Surfing the Quantum World

Frank S. Levin

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
November 2017
ISBN:
9780198808275
eISBN:
9780191846014
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198808275.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

Surfing the Quantum World bridges the gap between in-depth textbooks and typical popular science books on quantum ideas and phenomena. Among its significant features is the description of a host of ... More


Justifying Belief in Improbable Events

Larry Shapiro

in The Miracle Myth: Why Belief in the Resurrection and the Supernatural is Unjustified

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9780231178402
eISBN:
9780231542142
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231178402.003.0004
Subject:
Religion, Religion and Society

Miracles are supposed to be extraordinarily rare. But a mathematical result shows that the rarer a phenomenon, the more reliable any testimony regarding its occurrence must be in order for us to be ... More


From No Drop to Probabilism

Richard Pettigrew

in Accuracy and the Laws of Credence

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780198732716
eISBN:
9780191797019
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198732716.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Philosophy of Science

This chapter begins Part I of the book, which treats the accuracy argument for Probabilism. This chapter generalizes the argument given in the Introduction in favour of the principle No Drop. It ... More


Disciplinarity (Embedded and Specialized Systems)

Clifford Siskin

in System: The Shaping of Modern Knowledge

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9780262035316
eISBN:
9780262336345
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262035316.003.0005
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

During the final decades of the eighteenth century, Enlightenment efforts at comprehensive mastery gave way to different uses of system—to delimited and dedicated systems and to the dispersing of ... More


Advantages of the Hypothesis

Bradley E. Alger

in Defense of the Scientific Hypothesis: From Reproducibility Crisis to Big Data

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
February 2021
ISBN:
9780190881481
eISBN:
9780190093761
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190881481.003.0008
Subject:
Neuroscience, Techniques

This chapter makes the case for the scientific hypothesis from two quite different points of view: statistical and cognitive. The consideration of statistical advantages picks up from the discussion ... More


MEME, MAST, and Meta-MEME: New Tools for Motif Discovery in Protein Sequences

Timothy L. Bailey

in Pattern Discovery in Biomolecular Data: Tools, Techniques, and Applications

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195119404
eISBN:
9780197561256
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195119404.003.0008
Subject:
Computer Science, Systems Analysis and Design

We are in the midst of an explosive increase in the number of DNA and protein sequences available for study, as various genome projects come on line. This wealth of information offers important ... More


Pattern Discovery and Classification in Biosequences

Jason T. L. Wang and Thomas G. Marr

in Pattern Discovery in Biomolecular Data: Tools, Techniques, and Applications

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195119404
eISBN:
9780197561256
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195119404.003.0009
Subject:
Computer Science, Systems Analysis and Design

With the significant growth of the amount of biosequence data, it becomes increasingly important to develop new techniques for finding “knowledge” from the data. Pattern discovery is a fundamental ... More


Motif Discovery in Protein Structure Databases

Janice Glasgow and Evan Steeg

in Pattern Discovery in Biomolecular Data: Tools, Techniques, and Applications

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195119404
eISBN:
9780197561256
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195119404.003.0011
Subject:
Computer Science, Systems Analysis and Design

The field of knowledge discovery is concerned with the theory and processes involved in the representation and extraction of patterns or motifs from large databases. Discovered patterns can be used ... More


Mathematics and Fiction: Thomas Pynchon, Gravity’S Rainbow

Nina Engelhardt

in Modernism, Fiction and Mathematics

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
January 2019
ISBN:
9781474416238
eISBN:
9781474449656
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press
DOI:
10.3366/edinburgh/9781474416238.003.0005
Subject:
Literature, Criticism/Theory

Chapter 4 sets the engagement with modernist mathematics into broader context when examining the rise, fall and transformation of Enlightenment thinking and science in Pynchon’s Gravity’s Rainbow. ... More


Boltzmann Statistics

Daniel V. Schroeder

in An Introduction to Thermal Physics

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
March 2021
ISBN:
9780192895547
eISBN:
9780191915000
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780192895547.003.0006
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

When a system is held at a fixed temperature, its higher-energy states are less probable than its lower energy states by an amount that depends on how the energy compares to the temperature. The ... More


Learning to Signal: Analysis of a Micro-level Reinforcement Model

Raffaele Argiento, Robin Pemantle, and Stanislav Volkov

in Social Dynamics

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
June 2014
ISBN:
9780199652822
eISBN:
9780191779367
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199652822.003.0014
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter considers the following signaling game. Nature plays first from the set {1, 2}. Player 1 (the Sender) sees this and plays from the set {A, B}. Player 2 (the Receiver) sees only Player ... More


Reduced Perplexity: A Simplified Perspective on Assessing Probabilistic Forecasts

Kenric P. Nelson

in Advances in Info-Metrics: Information and Information Processing across Disciplines

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
December 2020
ISBN:
9780190636685
eISBN:
9780190636722
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190636685.003.0012
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Microeconomics

This chapter introduces a simple, intuitive approach to the assessment of probabilistic inferences. The Shannon information metrics are translated to the probability domain. The translation shows ... More


Conclusion

Richard A. Posner

in Catastrophe: Risk and Response

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195178135
eISBN:
9780197562444
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195178135.003.0008
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Cultural and Historical Geography

To summarize very briefly: The risks of global catastrophe are greater and more numerous than is commonly supposed, and they are growing, probably rapidly. They are growing for several reasons: the ... More


Opinion Aggregation and Individual Expertise

Carlo Martini and Jan Sprenger

in Scientific Collaboration and Collective Knowledge: New Essays

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
December 2017
ISBN:
9780190680534
eISBN:
9780190680565
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190680534.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Group judgments are often influenced by their members’ individual expertise. It is less clear, though, how individual expertise should affect the group judgments. This chapter surveys a wide range of ... More


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